Glossary



 

A.C. Resistance

The total resistance offered by a device in an alternating current circuit due to inductive and capacitive effects, as well as the direct current resistance.

AAR

American Association of Railroads

Abrasion Resistance

Ability of a wire, cable or material to resist surface wear.

Absorption

Cause for attenuation of a fibre optic cable.

Accelerated Aging

Tests where voltage, temperature, etc., are increased above normal operating conditions to obtain observable deterioration in a relatively short period of time. The plotted results give expected service life under normal conditions.

ACM

Aluminum conductor material.

ACR

Abbreviation for Attenuation to Crosstalk Ratio. The ACR value indicates the relationship between the near-end crosstalk and the attenuation at a certain frequency.

Active Current

In an alternating current, a component in phase with the voltage; the working component as distinguished from the idle or watt less component.

Active Pressure

In an A.C. circuit the pressure that produces a current as distinguished from the voltage impressed upon the circuit.

Address bus

System of associated cables, to which address bits can be transferred.

Adhesion

Adhesive, cohesive and density property of the outer jacket of a cable. “Low adhesion” property important e. g. for drag chain use in order to avoid the cables from sticking to each other.

Adjacent Conductor

Any conductor next to another conductor either in the same multi-conductor cable layer or in adjacent layers.

Admittance

The measure of the ease with which an alternating current flows in a circuit. The reciprocal of impedance.

Aerial Cable

A cable suspended in the air on poles or other overhead structure.

Aging

The irreversible change in properties or appearance of a material with time and under specific conditions (usually accelerated representations of environmental states, such as high temperature, oxygen or other various conditions or media).

Aging resistance

As cables are often subject to environmental influences over decades (life cycle), i. e. chemical, electrical and climatic exposure, it is these properties that are to be tested. Here, all the materials found in cables are briefly tested under extreme conditions. All materials should have a very high aging resistance.

Air Gap

The minimum gap of air between two conducting surfaces permissible at given voltages.

All-Rubber Cable

A cable in which all interstices between conductors are filled with rubber compound.

Alloy

A metal formed by combining two or more different metals to obtain different properties.

ALS

A type of cable consisting of insulated conductors enclosed in a continuous, closely fitting aluminum tube.

Alternating Current (AC)

Electric current that continually reverses its direction. It is expressed in cycles per second (hertz or Hz).

Alternating Voltage

The voltage developed a cross a resistance or impedance through which alternating current is flowing.

Aluminium sheath

The aluminium sheath is lighter than the lead sheath, has better conductivity and greater resistance, however must include a plastic sheath to protect against corrosion.

Aluminum Conductor

An aluminum wire or group of wires not suitably insulated to carry electrical current.

Aluminum-Steel Conductor

A composite conductor made up of a combination of aluminum and steel wires.

Ambient Temperature

An all-encompassing temperature within a given area.

American wire gauge

Cables or cores according to American cross-sections/dimensions. High AWG number → small cross-section, low AWG number → large cross-section (see Table T16).

Amp or Ampere

The unit of current. One ampere is the current flowing through one ohm of resistance at one volt potential.

Ampacity

Maximum permitted current that can be transmitted under defined conditions. VDE0298, Part 4.

Ampere

The strength of an electric current that flows through a conductor. Unit of measurement for the electric current (A).

Analog signal transmission

Transmission of continuously variable signals with which the light output is modulated.

Angle of beam spread

Half the vertical angle of the cone within which the injected power in a light waveguide with uniform illumination is equal to a specified fraction of the total injected power.

Anneal

The relief of mechanical stress through heat and gradual cooling. Annealing copper renders it less brittle.

Annular Conductor

A number of wires stranded in three reversed concentric layers around a core.

ANSI

Abbreviation for the American National Standards Institute. An American committee which, similar to the German DIN, develops and publishes standards.

Antenna cable

Antenna cables are coaxial high-frequency cables for receiver connections, domestic distribution grids and single antenna installations. They are mainly used in receiving and distribution stations for sound and television broadcasting. They must guarantee a low-reflection signal transmission.

Anti-kink cable glands

Mechanism that is part of a cable gland and provides additional protection if a flexible cable is frequently subjected to bending (e. g. SKINDICHT® SR-SV-M at Lapp).

Antioxidant, Oxidation inhibitor

As antioxidants may colour rubber compounds, they are generally only ever used for dark compounds. They prevent the compounds from becoming brittle too early.

Approved cables

Approved control and data network cables with certification, standards such as VDE, UL/CSA.

Area of conductor

The size of a conductor cross section measured in circular mils, square inches, etc.

Armor

A wrapping of metal, usually steel or aluminum, used for mechanical protection. Placed over the jacket sheath.

Armored Cable

A cable having a metallic covering for protection against mechanical damage.

Armouring

Also known as reinforcement. Armouring is a mechanical protection for cables. It is produced in a variety of ways and using a wide range of materials, depending on the expected loads on the cable. It can be made of steel wire braiding, circular or flat steel wires, strip iron or combinations of these materials.

Armouring types

Commonly used are the flat steel wire, steel band, profile steel wire and round steel wire armouring with outer protective cover. There are also steel wire armourings with an anti-twist tape (steel band), however without an outer protective cover (for interior spaces).

Armouring, armour

A special electromechanical or mechanical protection against external stresses, for the improvement of the reduction factor and for the absorption of tensile forces. Plastic fibres are used instead of metallic armouring for fibre optic cables.

AS

Abbreviation for Australian Standard

ASI (Actor-Sensor-Interface)

Bus system for the lowest level of automation. Facilitates the simple connection of sensors, actuators and integrated systems to the first control level. See → Master-Slave principle. Up to 248 binary inputs and outputs per grid, one cable for information and energy, reversepolarity protected connection technology, 100 m cable length or up to 300 m with repeaters, open tree structure of grid, protection class up to IP 67, cycle time <5 ms, high immunity to interference and fault tolerance.

ASME

The American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

ASP

A cable sheath consisting of a corrugated aluminum (A) shield, corrugated steel (S) shield, flooding compound and an outer polyethylene (P) jacket.

Assembly

A ready-to-install cable. It is cut to the appropriate length and fitted with connecting elements (plugs, cable lugs, etc.) at the ends.

ASTM

The American Society for Testing and Materials.

ATEX approval

This approval is required for the intended use of devices and protection systems in areas at risk to explosions.

Attenuation

Attenuation is the reduction of the signal amplitude during transmission to a medium. It increases with the rising frequency and cable length. The signal level is impaired in the process.

Attenuation a

The reduction of the optical signal power between two cross-sectional surfaces of a fibre optic cable due to losses. The unit of measurement is decibels (dB).

Attenuation coefficient a

The attenuation relative to the length of a fibre optic cable. The standard unit of measurement is decibel/kilometre (dB/km).

Automotive cable

Vehicle cables are cores and cables used in passenger cars and trucks (e. g. ÖLFLEX® TRUCK at Lapp).

AWG

Abbreviation for American Wire Gauge. The standard system used for designating wire diameter. The lower the AWG number, the larger the diameter.

AWM

UL or CSA designation for Appliance Wiring Material.

Backbone

Backbone or secondary wiring is the connection between the building distributor and the individual floor distributors in a structured wiring system.

Backscatter

A small fraction of the light that is deflected from its course due to dispersion travels in a reverse direction, i. e. in the light waveguide back to the transmitter. By observing the chronological progression of the backscattered light using a beam splitter on the transmitter, it is possible to measure not only the length and damping of an installed light waveguide from one end but also local irregularities, e. g. light losses in splices.

Backtwist

The term relates to the stranding process. The technical design of the stranding machine twists the elements to be processed into a strand without torsion.

BALUN

Balun is a term combining “balanced” and “unbalanced”. Baluns are used for adjusting impedance and symmetry in the various transmission media in copper grids.

Band Marking

A continuous circumferential band applied to a conductor at regular intervals for identification.

Band Width

The frequency range of transmitted electrical signals, expressed in Hertz.

Banding

Wrapping a bundle of wires with relatively narrow paper, textile, plastic or metal strips.

Bandwidth

Frequency range of a fibre optic cable within which data can be transmitted within a particular time frame. The greater the bandwidth, the more data that can be transmitted. The transmission speed depends on the bandwidth of the entire network.

Bandwidth product

The bandwidth product is what results when the bandwidth of a glass fibre cable is multiplied with the length of the measured section.

Bandwidth-length product

Measurement for the frequency range that can be transmitted by a fibre optic cable one kilometre in length. It is a constant value.

Bare Conductor

An electrical conductor with no coating or cladding on the copper.

BASEC

Abbreviation for the British Approvals Service for Cables. Certification body – Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Basic Conductor Load

The limiting conductor-load per unit length assumed for the purposes of design.

Basic raw materials

In addition to the basic raw material, synthetic materials contain a range of other components such as stabilisers, softeners, filler and colour.

Batteries Act

The Battery Act came into force in 2009 and also covers the registration and return of batteries.

Battery cables

Link between battery and generator in the engine. They are developed, manufactured and delivered in accordance with customer requirements/product specifications.

Baud

Unit for a modulation rate in the transmission of communications. One step per second. 1 bit/s = baud, 1Mbit/s = 1 Mbaud → see Bit

Bel

1 Bel = 10 decibels. In highfrequency technology, the common unit of measurement for attenuation and, like decibel, a dimensionless ratio.

Belt

Number of layers of insulation on a conductor, or number of layers of jacket on a cable.

Belted-Type Cable

Multiple conductor cable having a layer of insulation over the assembled insulated conductors.

Bending capacity

The bending capacity indicates how far a product can bend without forfeiting function.

Bending cycle

Number of bends repeated in the drag chain (How often was a cable actively stressed during testing or during application?)

Bending radii

Permissible radius for occasional or constant bending of cables. The bending radius is defined as a multiple of the cable diameter. The construction of the cables determines the minimum permissible bending radius, which allows it to be increased or reduced. The permissible bending radii must be adhered to when laying power lines and cables. The standard values are between 15 x D and 30 x D, depending on construction type and regulation. D is the outer diameter of the cable. (At Lapp: ÖLFLEX® FD with 5 x D or 7.5 x D).

Bending test at low temperature

Cold flexibility test for cables. A cold cable is wrapped around a pin and no cracks may occur in the insulation.

Binary

Property restricted to just two values.

Binder

A spirally served tape or thread used for holding assembled cable components in place awaiting subsequent manufacturing operations.

Bit

The smallest unit for representing binary data, significance either 0 or 1. It is the basic unit for transmission information in digital systems. A byte is a group of 8 bits.

Bit error rate, BER

Ratio of error bits to the overall number of bits received during a specific period.

Blue cable

Cable for intrinsically safe systems in hazardous locations. The compulsory colour code here is blue, RAL 5015. (For Lapp, ÖLFLEX® EB. These cable types are also available with shielding, e. g. ÖLFLEX® EB CY, UNITRONIC® EB CY).

Bond

The attachment at an interface between an adhesive and an adherent or between materials attached together by adhesive.

Braid

A fibrous or metallic group of filaments interwoven in cylindrical form to form a covering over one or more wires.

Braid angle

Variation in degrees between the longitudinal axis and the wire routing within the braid.

Braid Carrier

A spool or bobbin on a braider which holds one group of strands or filaments consisting of a specific number of ends. The carrier revolves during braiding operations.

Braid Ends

The number of strands used to make up one carrier. The strands are wound side by side on the carrier bobbin and lie parallel in the finished braid.

Braiding

Arrangement of interlaced wires or threads forming part of the structure of a cable. Copper wire braiding is used for screening, while braiding made of textile, plastic thread or steel wire performs supporting or carrying, i. e. mechanical, functions. Braiding can be close or wide meshed (coverage density in percent) with different angles of twist.

Breakdown

This refers to electrical breakdown between two conductors or a conductor in water during the testing process, when the insulation can no longer withstand the constantly increasing voltage (breakdown voltage) or if a fault in the insulation results in a breakdown within a specified time at a constant voltage.

Breakdown of Insulation

Failure of an insulation resulting in a flow of current through the insulation. It may be caused by the application of too high voltage or by defects or decay.

Breakdown Voltage

The voltage at which the insulation between two conductors breaks down.

Breaking load, ultimate load

The product of nominal cross-section and tensile strength is the breaking load.

Breakout

The point at which a conductor or group of conductors break out from a multi-conductor cable to complete circuits at various points along the main cable.

British Standard Wire Gauge

Also known as NBS (New British Standard), SWG (Standard Wire Gauge), Legal Standard and Imperial Wire Gauge. A modified version of the Birmingham Wire Gauge, a standard from Great Britain valid for all wires.

Broadband

Transmissions in which the signals are transmitted by a high number of oscillations per second (glass fibre technology).

BS

Abbreviation for British Standard. Standards body for Great Britain, similar to VDE in Germany.

BSI

Abbreviation for British Standard Institution – Great Britain.

Building Wire

Wire used for light and power, 600 volts or less, usually not exposed to an outdoor environment.

Bunch Strand

Any number of conductor strands twisted together in one direction with the same lay length.

Bunch Stranding

A group of wires of the same diameter twisted together without a predetermined pattern.

Bundle

Several cores or pairs that are stranded into a group and in turn make up one element of a strand assembly.

Bus system

The bus system is a system of cables that transmits information and data.

Bushing

A mechanical device used as a lining for an opening to prevent abrasion to wire and cable.

C.S.A.

Abbreviation for Canadian Standards Association. A not-for-profit membership based association that serves business, industry, government, and consumers in Canda and the global marketplace.

Cable

Combination of several cores with protective layers (sheath) or sheathing of a single core. The sheathing protects the cores against all kinds of harmful influences. Cables are used to transport electric current (power cables), transmit information using an electric current (data cables) or to transfer information using light waves (light waveguide cables). The term line is also commonly used, depending on the application. It is not possible to exactly delineate the two terms. In general, the term “cable” is used for installations outside buildings. In practice, however, the terms are used interchangeably. Combination of any number of cores under a sheath.

Cable

A group of individually insulated conductors in twisted or parallel configuration, with or without an overall covering.

Cable Assembly

A completed cable and its associated hardware ready to install.

Cable carrier

An assembly of linked, hinged support elements for directional, dynamic routing of all types of flexible bending power cables.

Cable data

The cable type file is part of the CAE software from ePLAN®. The cable type file defines the number of cores, their colour code, the PE core and the screening for all cables. In the Lapp item master data for ePLAN®, the cable type is assigned to the relevant item. This means that when a Lapp item is selected, each core is automatically assigned the appropriate colour code in the ePLAN® circuit diagram.

Cable Filler

The material used in multiple conductor cables to occupy the spaces formed by the assembly or components, thus forming a core of the desired shape (normally cylindrical).

Cable gland

The brand name is SKINTOP® at Lapp. A cable gland is a device that is designed to guide a cable or an insulated conductor into a sheath and provides a seal and a restraint mechanism. It can also have other functions, e. g. kink prevention, strain relief, potential equalisation, earthing, insulation or a combination of these.

Cable gland size

The following sizes are currently defined in EN 60562: M 12 x 1.5; M 16 x 1.5; M 20 x 1.5; M 25 x 1,5; M 32 x 1.5; M 40 x 1.5; M 50 x 1.5; M 63 x 1.5; M 75 x 1.5; M 90 x 2; M 110 x 2. M stands for metric.

Cable print

Coloured marking on the outer sheath of individual elements or cables using symbols, names and other markings.

Cable set-up

Describes (from inside to out) the materials used for cables, their design and properties and the position of the individual elements.

Cable Tray

A ladder, trough, solid-bottom or channel raceway system intended for, but not limited to, the support of telecommunications media (i.e., cable).

Cable tree

Combination of individual cores or cables tied together with nylon ties, spirals or hose sheathing. The form of the harness is created when joining the wires, as the various consumers in the device and system circuits are physically separated and the connection with the individual cables makes constant branches necessary.

Cable type letter code

Identification of cables according to their design, nominal cross-section and number of cores, nominal voltage and conductor shape, which results in specific combinations of predetermined letters and numbers. For rules and standards, each of the letters and numbers has a specific meaning.

Cables for hand-held machinery

Handheld device cables are connecting and extension cables for power tools used in the open air or in enclosed spaces (e. g. ÖLFLEX® 540 P/CP, ÖLFLEX® 550 P, ÖLFLEX® 400, ÖLFLEX® 500 P, ÖLFLEX® SF... at Lapp).

Cabling

The twisting together of two or more insulated conductors to form a cable.

Cabling Factor

Used in the formula for calculating the diameter of an unshielded, unjacketed cable. D=Kd, where D is the cable diameter, K is the factor and d is the diameter of one insulated conductor.

Caloric load values

Caloric load is the energy that is released when cables and other building materials are burned.

Campus

The campus or primary wiring establishes the connection between the various buildings within a structured wiring system.

CAN

Controller Area Network. Result-controlled communication system. As a generator of information, this reports to all connected nodes.

Canadian Electrical Code

See → CEC

Capacitance

Storage of electrically separated charges between two plates having different potentials. The value depends largely on the surface area of the plates on the distance between them.

Capacitance, Direct

The capacitance measured directly from conductor to conductor through a single insulating layer.

Capacitance, Mutual

he capacitance between two conductors with all other conductors, including shield, connected to ground.

Capacity

Electrical unit of measure, measured in Farad, or electrical unit of measure V x A = Watts.

Carrier frequency

The frequency of the oscillation whose amplitude, phase or frequency is influenced by a signal.

Carrier frequency, hook-up wire

In carrier frequency systems, they are used to transmit signals. Up to 120 carrier frequency channels can be simultaneously transmitted in a cable.

CCC

Abbreviation for China Compulsory Certificate. Products requiring certification can only be imported to China, sold in China or used in Chinese business activities after the relevant CCC certification has been requested and granted.

CE

Abbreviation for Communauté Européenne (European Community).

CE marking

Comprises the “CE” symbol and indicates a product?s compliance with all applicable EU directives. CE indicates that the natural or legal entity which carries out or initiates the connection is satisfied that the product meets the requirements of all relevant harmonised standards and has been subjected to all mandatory conformity assessment procedures.

CEBEC

Abbreviation for Comité Electronique Belge – Belgian certification body.

CEC

Abbreviation for the Canadian version of the US National Electrical Code (NEC).

CEE

Mark for the European standards institution: International Commission on Rules of Electrical Equipment.

CEI

Abbreviation for Commission Electrotechnique Internationale – International.

Cellular Polyethylene

Expanded or "foam" polyethylene consisting of individual closed cells suspended in a polyethylene medium.

CENELEC

Abbreviation for Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechniques (Europe).

Central element

See → Core.

Central filler

The core is a design element onto which the other design elements are attached.

Certificate of Compliance (C of C)

A certificate which is normally generated by the Quality Control Department, which shows that the product being shipped meets customer's specifications.

Characteristic Impedance

The impedance that, when connected to the output terminals of a transmission line of any length, makes the line appear infinitely long. The ratio of voltage to current at every point along a transmission line on which there are no standing waves.

Chromatic dispersion

Grouping of wavelength-dependent effects which lead to a bandwidth limitation, such as waveguide dispersion and sheath dispersion.

Circuit

The complete path through which a current flows or part of the complete path, such as one conductor.

Circular Mil

The area of a circle one mil (.001") in diameter; 7.845 x 10-7 sq. in. Used in expressing wire cross sectional area.

Circular Mil (CM)

Measurement for conductor cross-sections in 1/1000 inch (0.001") from circuit diameter.

Cladding

Cladding is the glass layer which surrounds the core of the fibre optic cable.

Clamping range

Cable diameter range for which the assured properties of a cable gland apply.

Clamping Voltage

Underwriters Laboratories (UL) rates the clamping voltage of surge protectors. The lower the rating, the better the protection.

CNOMO

Abbreviation for Comité de Normalisation des Moyens de Production. Commission for the standardisation of machine tools and tools used in the French automotive industry.With fibre optic cables, the plastic layer on the surface of the sheath for preserving the original surface condition.

Coating

A material applied to the surface of a conductor to prevent environmental deterioration and helps to facilitate soldering.

Coaxial Cable

A cable consisting of two cylindrical conductors with a common axis, separated by a dielectric.

Cold Bend

A laboratory test procedure whereby a sample of wire or cable is wound around a mandrel of a specified size at a specified temperature for a given number of turns at a given rate of speed and examined for defects.

Cold flow

Permanent deformation of the insulation due to mechanical force or pressure (not due to heat softening).

Cold Test

Any test to determine the performance of cables during or after subjection to a specified low temperature for a specified time.

Color Code

A system for circuit identification through use of solid colors and contrasting tracers.

Color print

Sheaths and insulation covers are usually printed with color, using a metallic disc whose lettering is engraved inversely on its periphery. Using a scraper, the excess color can be scraped away.

Communication

Interaction between two independent systems. Used for one-way or two-way exchange of messages in the form of voice, text, images or data.

Compensating cable

Compensating cables are used together with a thermal element for temperature measurements. (Thermal elements such as Fe/CuNi iron-constantan (blue); NiCr/Ni nickel-chromium-nickel (green); PtRh/Pt platinum-rhodium-platinum (white). A thermal element consists of two conductors made from different materials, between which there is an electric potential depending on temperature. A compensating cable transmits this potential from the thermal element to a cold junction. There, based on the value of the potential, the temperature can be assigned at the point of measurement.

Composite Cable

A cable consisting of two or more different types or sizes of wires.

Composite layer, composite sheath

The combination of an aluminium foil with the plastic/polyethylene sheath of a cable. The foil covers the core of the cable lengthways and overlapping, while the plastic part is placed on the outside. The outer sheath extruded onto it forms a homogeneous connection with the foil due to the effect of temperature, resulting in an interconnected “laminated” aluminium foil sheath. Used in outdoor telecommunications cables.

Compound

An insulating or jacketing material made by mixing two or more ingredients.

Concentric conductor

The concentric conductor (e. g. NYCWY) may be used as a PE or PEN wire and can also act as the screening.

Concentric Stranding

A central wire surrounded by one or more layers of helically wound strands in a fixed round geometric arrangement.

Concentricity

In a wire or cable, the measurement of the location of the center of the conductor with respect to the geometric center of the surrounding insulation.

Conditioning

Division of production length of cables into storage or delivery lengths. Standard forms include coils with lengths of 50, 100 and 250 m and drums with 250, 500 and 1,000 m, depending on weight.

Conductance

The ability of a conductor to carry electric current. It is the reciprocal of resistance and is measured in mhos.

Conductivity

The capability of a material to carry electrical current - usually expressed as a percentage of copper conductivity (copper being 100%).

Conductor

Single-conductor cables are single- or multi-wire cables, used mainly for fixed laying with rubber or plastic insulation (ground wire). A non-insulated wire of a material whose high number of free electrons makes it suitable for carrying electric current (particularly copper and aluminium).Component allowing a connection that is easy to break and reestablish between two light waveguides. The insertion loss from a connector is normally higher than that from a splice. In signal and power engineering, connectors are used for connecting cables with different numbers of poles and in a variety of different designs. Because of the associated ease of service compared to fixed cable connections, connectors are being used in an increasing number of applications. (e. g. EPIC® at Lapp). Plugs are components that enable electrical conductors to be connected and are designed to create detachable electrical connections with an appropriate counterpart. Plugs may not be inserted or removed during proper use (under electrical voltage). A distinction is made between free and fixed plugs according to the mounting. The plug is made up of the plug housing and the contact elements. (e. g. EPIC® brand from Contact at Lapp).Central component for star-shaped passive light waveguide networks. It connects numerous transmitters and receivers and distributes the signal light output supplied by a connected transmitter evenly to all connected receivers.

Conductor Shield

An extrusion of black semi-conducting thermoses material over the conductor to provide a smooth interface with the insulation for even distribution of electrical stress.

Conduit

A tube or trough in which insulation wire and cables are run.

Connector

A device used to physically and electrically connect two or more conductors. Connectors are a generic device for providing an electrical interface between electrical equipment and/ or a power source. Our connectors may not be mated or unmated under load.

Contact

The part of a connector, which actually carries the electrical current, and are, touched together or separated to control the flow.

Contact voltage

Part of an error voltage which may be contacted by members of the general public.

Continuity Check

A test to determine whether electricity current flows continuously throughout the length of a single wire or individual wires in a cable.

Control Cable

A multi-conductor cable made for operation in control or signal circuits.

Copolymer

A compound polymerised from two or three monomers to form a chain.

Copper

The best material for producing electrical conductors. Excellent conductivity of heat and electricity. In addition, copper (Cu) has very good ductility and good strength properties.

Copper base

The monetary value used to value the copper contained in cables in the price.

Copper weight

It expresses the mass of the copper contained in the cables.

Copper-clad aluminium wire

This wire is made up of an aluminium core and a copper sheath.

Cord

A small, flexible insulated cable.

Cordset

Portable cords fitted with a wiring device at one or both ends.

Core

In cables, a component or assembly of components over which additional components (shield, jacket, etc.) are applied.

Core check, response at increased temperature

In order to determine the influence of heat on the mechanical properties of, for example, insulating covers, a test item is placed in a device for heat pressure testing which has already reached the testing temperature. The wall thickness of the test item determines the test load. After a specific storage period in the heating cabinet and subsequent cooling, the impression depth is measured with the reading microscope.

Core check, response with thermal shock

The core insulating cover is checked for thermal shock by wrapping the cores or strips from the insulating cover around a defined mandrel and storing them in a heating cabinet for approx. 1 hour at 150 °C. After removing the cores/strips and cooling them to room temperature, these test items should not display any visible cracks.

Core diameter

The core diameter is the diameter of the central light-carrying section of a light waveguide.

Core group

For the transmission of signals or energy, two or more stranded cores are required. Using two cores, it is possible to form a circuit that can transmit energy or signals.

Core Ident Code

VDE-DIN-colour code for colour-coded low-voltage cables according to VDE 0293-308/HD 308 S2.

Core identification

Coloured or numbered identification of single cores. A Lapp development: The internationally proven ÖLFLEX® colour code is based on the colour-coded identification of the single cores. Ten basic colours are combined with 2 mm wide colour spirals. This results in 102 colour variations. This colour marking is particularly advantageous compared to cores printed with numbers, as it means the cores can be assigned much more quickly in a device (saving time).

Core joint

Core joints combine synthetically insulated signal cable and telecommunication cores in a conductor diameter range of 0.35 – 0.9 mm. The cores are pressed together using a special core-joining pliers and thus placed solderless into the connection sleeve.

Core print

In the manufacture of cables, cores are principally identified by four methods: 1. Cores can be manufactured in one primary colour. 2. Marked with various colour codes. 3. Printed. 4. A combination of the different colour codes with printing. It must be noted that only earth conductors are to be green-yellow in colour and that these colours may not be used if there is any risk of confusion with other cables.

Core stranding

Without stranding, wires positioned parallel to one another would deform when bent. The outer wires would be overstretched and the inner wires compressed. The individual wires are twisted together in a spiral to maintain the flexibility and mobility of the conductor. The result is known as core stranding.

Core stranding with more than four cores

When constructing a cable, the best layer structure of the stranding elements is always selected, to obtain cables that are as circular as possible. Gaps in the layer structure are filled with insulated fillers or central cores (filling elements). In flat cables, the structural elements (groups or cores) are parallel to one another and can be stranded.

Core wrapping

Core wrappings are used to protect the insulating covers of rubber-insulated cables. They are mainly made from foil or fabric tape.

Core, conductor, insulated wire

Individually insulated conductor, e. g. made of single- or multi-wire copper or aluminium. Core = conductive component of cables with insulation coloured or marked numerically.

Corona

A discharge due to ionization of air around a conductor due to a potential gradient exceeding a certain critical value.

Corona Test

A test to determine the ability of a cable to withstand the formation of corona under an increasing applied voltage and to extinguish corona when a corona-producing voltage is reduced.

Corrosion

The deterioration of a material by chemical reaction of galvanic action.

Coupler

Passive optical components for transmission of light between a light source and a light waveguide or between several light waveguides. Couplers that allow light waveguide networks for connecting multiple transmitters and receivers to be set up are of particular importance (see → T coupler).

Crane cables

Crane cables are supply cables for cranes in the open air or indoors (e. g. ÖLFLEX® CRANE at Lapp).

Creep distance

The minimum dimension along the surface of an insulating material between two conducting surfaces.

Crimp connection

Mechanical joining technology. When joining, for example, coaxial connectors with a coaxial cable using a crimping tool, a metal sleeve is pulled over the shielding and pressed together.

Crimp Termination

A connection in which a metal sleeve is secured to a conductor by mechanically crimping the sleeve with pliers, presses or automated crimping machines.

Cross-Linked

Inter-molecular bonds between long chain thermoplastic polymers by chemical or electron bombardment means. The properties of the resulting thermosetting materials are usually improved.

Cross-linked polyethylene XLPE

Cross-linked polyethylene.

Cross-linking agent

Cross-linking agents or vulcanising materials in rubber compounds are either sulphur (for natural or synthetic rubber) or peroxide (for silicone, EPDM). Sulphur cross linking begins at room temperature and intensifies as the temperature is increased. With peroxide cross linking, oxygen is released for cross linking at a specific temperature.

Cross-section

Cross-sectional area of the conductor. A distinction is made between the geometrically defined nominal cross-section and the conductive cross-section, which is derived from the electrical → resistance. A certain maximum resistance is assigned to the nominal cross-section, within which the conductor structure is specified. The cross-section is normally specified in mm2. However, for certain types of cables, which are always made up of single-core conductors (telecommunications cables), the conductor diameter is used for marking or description.

Crosstalk

Signal interference between nearby conductors by pickup of stray energy. It is also called induced interference.

CSA

Abbreviation for “Canadian Standards Association”. Canadian standards and testing body. Similar to VDE in Germany.

Current

The rate of flow of electricity in a circuit, measured in amperes.

Current-Carrying Capacity

The maximum current an insulated conductor or cable can continuously carry without exceeding its temperature rating. This is also called ampacity.

D.C.

Abbreviation for "Direct Current." DC Values = AC RMS values

Dark current

Current at the output of an optical receiver if no radiation is present.

Data bus

A system of associated cables, to which data bits are transferred.

Data transmission cable

Cables whose structure make them suitable for transmitting electric data processing pulses with minimum errors. Simple (pair) or more complex (screening) constructions are required depending on the susceptibility of the data pulses to faults (brand: UNITRONIC® at Lapp).Computer cables (Li2YCY-PIMF) or other, at least twisted in pairs, normally screened and often individually screened cables, e. g. UNITRONIC® LIYCY (TP), UNITRONIC® BUS; UNITRONIC® LAN, telephone cable, also light waveguide cables. TP = Twisted pair.

Data transmission rate

Unit of measure for the transmission speed of a data transmission. It is measured in bit/s or byte/s.

Data transmission, data transfer

Optical data transmission is always serial. Before data transmission, pending parallel data is always prepared for serial transfer and is post-processed to a parallel form after the transmission. We also refer to bit serial data transmission, as all of this data is always transferred as digital signals.

Decibel

A decibel is the logarithmic ratio of two levels (e. g. input level to output level). The unit of measure has no dimension and is specified in dB.

Decibel (dB)

A unit to express difference of power level. Used to express power gain in amplifiers or power loss in passive circuits of cables.

Degrees of protection

Protection of electrical equipment by housing, covers etc. Protection of equipment against the ingress of foreign bodies and water.

DEL

Abbreviation for Deutsches Elektrolytkupfer für Leitzwecke (German electrolyte copper for conduction) DEL is the stock market code for 99.5% pure copper in Euro/100 kg (see T17).

DEMKO

Abbreviation for Danmarks Elektriska Materialkontroll – Danish standards and testing body, testing and certification body, tasks similar to VDE/UL.

Density

Ratio of the mass to the volume of a body. If the mass is M and the volume is V, the radio is the density d = M : V.

Density unit

Result of the density of a body relative to the density of water (= 1). Corresponds to the specific weight.

Derating Factor

A factor used to reduce the current carrying capacity of a wire when used in environments other than that for which the value was established.

Designation label

Fixing elements with which single wires, bundles, cables and cables on machine parts or walls can be permanently fixed in place. They are transparent or coloured, usually made from nylon and can display indelible information about their content.

DESINA®

The Verein Deutscher Werkzeugmaschinenfabriken e. V. (VDW) [German Machine Tool Manufacturing Federation] developed DESINA® (DEcentralised and Standardised INstAllation technology), a comprehensive overall concept for standardisation of electrical installation of equipment and machinery. Colour codes of cables: Servo cable, screened: Sheath colour orange RAL 2003 Cable for measuring systems, screened: Sheath colour green RAL 6018 Power cable, unscreened: Sheath colour black RAL 9005 24 Volt control cable, unscreened: Sheath colour grey RAL 7040 (similar to 7001) Field bus hybrid cable, Cu and light waveguide: Sheath colour violet RAL 4001 Sensor/actuator cable, unscreened: Sheath colour yellow RAL 1021

DeviceNetTM

Simple CAN-based communication system for networking of industrial automation equipment (limit transmitters, photo sensors, motor starters, frequency controlled drives, control terminals and similar) with master control equipment. Two screened twisted pairs of conductors within a cable are used as the transmission medium. One is used for communication (with transmission rates of 125, 250 or 500 kBit/s for cable lengths of 500 m, 250 m or 100 m) and the other to supply power to the connected equipment (max. 8 A for 24 V DC voltage).

Dielectric

Any insulating material between two conductors which permits electrostatic attraction and repulsion to take place across it.

Dielectric Breakdown

The voltage at which a dielectric material is punctured, which is divisible by thickness to given dielectric strength.

Dielectric constant (DC)

A material constant for a dielectric. The dielectric constant specifies how many times greater the capacitance of the capacitor will be if the insulating material is used as the dielectric instead of air. Multiplying the DC of the empty space by the dielectric constant gives the DC of the dielectric.

Dielectric Constant (K)

The ratio of the capacitance of a condenser with dielectric between the electrodes to the capacitance when air is between the electrodes. Also called Permittivity and Specific Inductive Capacity.

Dielectric Strength

The voltage which insulation can withstand before breakdown occurs. Usually expressed as a voltage gradient (such as volts per mil).

Dielectric Test

A test in which a voltage higher than the rated voltage is applied for a specified time to determine the adequacy of the insulation under normal conditions.

Diffusion

The primary cause of attenuation in a light waveguide. It is the result of microscopic fluctuations in the density of the glass, which deflect part of the guided light sufficiently from its course that it actually leaves the light waveguide. With light wavelengths above 1600 nm, this effect is very weak, however it increases at short wavelengths by the wavelength to the power of four (Rayleigh dispersion).

Digital signal transmission

Transmission of a signal using binary light pulses in a period time pattern.

Dimension

A term for the geometric size of a wire or strand, expressed as a diameter or cross-section. Often used in conjunction with the number of cores, e. g. 18 x 1.5 mm2.

DIN

Abbreviation for Deutsches Institute für Normung [German Standardisation Institution]. It is based in Berlin, Germany.

DIN EN

European standard added to the German body of standards.

Direct Burial Cable

A cable installed directly into the earth.

Direct Capacitance

The capacitance measured directly from conductor to conductor through a single insulating layer.

Direct Current (DC)

An electric current, which flows in only one direction.

Direct Current Resistance (D.C.R.)

The resistance offered by any circuit to the flow of direct current.

Direct line, connecting cable

A connecting cable is a cable that has a coupling connector through which the network connection is established. The fixed connection is found inside the device. The device is portable. The coupling connector contains earthed contacts and is thermoplastically moulded to the cable. Connecting cables are, for example, used to connect portable telephones.

Dispersion

Dispersion of the signal running time in a light waveguide. It is made up of various components: mode dispersion, material dispersion and waveguide dispersion. As a result of its dispersion, a light waveguide acts as a low-pass filter for the signals to be transmitted (see → Transmission function).

DKE

Abbreviation for Deutsche Kommission Elektrotechnik und Elektronik Informationstechnik [German Electrical Engineering, Electronics and Information Technology] in DIN und VDE. It is a branch of the DIN and its agency the VDE (Electrical Engineering, Electronics and Information Technology Federation). As a national organisation for formulating standards in electrical engineering and information technology, the DKE deals with important interdisciplinary issues such as safety, EMC, components and performance of conventional electric circuits, mobile wireless communication, software and Internet protocols. DKE is the German member of the European and global standardisation organisations. The DKE implements and publishes the results of standardisation work by the → IEC, → CELENEC and → ETSI in national standards.

Drag chain cables

Drag chain cables are cables used in power chains (e. g. ÖLFLEX® FD, ÖLFLEX® SERVO FD, UNITRONIC® FD plus at Lapp).

Drain wire

Single- or multi-wire non-insulated conductor that is run in close metallic contact under a screening.

Ductility, flexibility

As all cables and cores are liable to mechanical stress, they are also checked for flexibility, i. e. bent several times around various bending radii. There may be no visible damage to the cables, sheaths, inner or outer protective covers after testing. All stranded elements, braidings and wrappings must also remain correctly in place. In addition to the diameter of the strand assembly and the number of elements to be stranded, the length of lay plays a significant role in the flexibility of a cable. Based on the following principle: The shorter the length of lay, the more flexible the strand assembly.

Dummy

If there are “openings” detected in the cable, dummy elements or dummy cores are inserted and stranded together with the cable assembly. Dummy elements are generally made from cheap, inferior materials such as polyethylene twine, spun rayon and cotton. They are usually the same size as the real stranding elements.

Duplex operation

Transmission of two independent signals over a particular distance.

Duroplastic

In contrast to thermoplastics, after heating duroplastics cannot be deformed by heating them again. Duroplastics are required in the cable industry, e. g. as cable fittings or connectors.

Earth connection

Earthing of a point of the circuit, such as the neutral point, neutral conductor, midpoint or outer conductor.

Earth electrocode, ground system

Conductor that provides a conductive connection to earth. For example, it can be embedded in the ground or have a large area in contact with the ground.

Earthing

Earthing guarantees a clear reference potential for screening the active and passive components of a network.

ECAD

The ECAD component standard is a manufacturer-independent standard for describing item and engineering data in electrical engineering, specifically for machine and equipment manufacture.

EIA

Abbreviation for Electronic Industries Associations.

Elastomere

Elastomers are widely used for sheathing and insulating cables because of their excellent electrical and mechanical properties. Elastomers are high-molecular materials, whose elasticity depends on the degree of cross-linking. The biggest difference between elastic and plastic materials lies in loading and relief. After relief, an elastic material reverts to its original shape.

Electric circuits

In a cable, circuits with different voltages can be operated if they are insulated for the maximum voltage that occurs – VDE 0113 Part 1 and VDE 0100 Part 520.

Electric diameter of conductors

Determined on cables by electrical resistance measurements.

Electric Field

When voltages are applied to cables, electrical fields are formed, which can take on different shapes depending on the cable construction. In the low voltage range, up to approx. 1 kV, electrical fields have only a negligible influence on the dimensions of the insulating walls. To guarantee operational safety, there are high demands on the materials and dimensions in the high voltage range. An electrical field is represented by field lines. The density of these field lines indicates the force that exists between the two points on a field line (voltage).

Electric resistance

Resistance with which an electric circuit opposes the passage of the current. Resistance is specified and measured in Ohms.

Electricity

Form of energy based on the flow of free electrons. Electricity is produced in generators.

Electromagnetic

Pertaining to the combined electric and magnetic fields associated with movements of electrons through conductors.

Electromagnetic protection

Protection against faults that could affect the cable from outside (immisions). Protection against faults caused by the cable (emissions). Braid, e. g. copper (tin plated) → flexible → coverage. Protection against external influences: mechanical, e. g. cables over edges; stepping on; pulling of cables; chemical: e. g. oils; thermal: heat, cold.

Electrostatic

Pertaining to static electricity or electricity at rest. A constant intense electric charge.

Element

Individual component of cables, a collective term for cores, pairs, bundles and carrier organs.

Elongation

The fractional increase in length of a material stressed in tension.

Elongation at break, ultimate elongation

Elongation at break is the ratio of the elongation to the initial length when a break occurs.

Elongation, extension, stretch

Extension of a body by mechanical forces. In the cable industry, it is tested using a mechanical testing method to determine the tensile strength of all components.

ELOT

Hellenic Organization for Standardization. Certification body for Greece.

EMC

Abbreviation for Electromagnetic Compatibility. The ability of a system, machine or item of equipment to work satisfactorily in the electromagnetic environment without itself causing any electromagnetic interference that would be unacceptable for all systems, machines or equipment in that environment.

EMI

Abbreviation for Electromagnetic Interference.

EMK

Abbreviation for electromotive force.

EMS

Abbreviation for Electromagnetic Susceptibility. This is the functional resistance of a specific object to electromagnetic interference factors.

EN

Abbreviation for European Standards.

Ends

In braiding, the number of essentially parallel wires or threads on a carrier.

EPDM

Abbreviation for Ethylene Propylene Dien Monomer rubber. Chemically cross-linked elastomer with good electrical insulating properties and outstanding flexibility at low and high temperatures.

EPIC®

Abbreviation for Environmental Protected Industrial Connector. Registered trademark, a robust industrial connector from Contact.

ePLAN®

ePLAN® is the leading CAE software for planning electrical designs and documentation in machine and plant construction. The Lapp item data and the cable type file enable the individual cores in the ePLAN® circuit diagram to be assigned automatically. ePLAN® is produced by ePLAN® Software & Service GmbH & Co.KG. See www.eplan.de

EPR

Abbreviation for Ethylene Propylene Rubber.

Ethernet

A local area network (LAN) which uses the CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) access method on a bus topography.

Ethylene Propylene Rubber (EPR)

An ozone resistant rubber consisting primarily of ethylene propylene copolymer (EPM) or ethylene propylene diene monomer (EDPM).

Ethylene-Propylene-Rubber

See → EPDM

ETSI

Abbreviation for European Telecommunication Standards Institute. Its duties include developing harmonised standards for an integrated European communication system.

Explosive atmospheres

See VDE 0165 Part 1. Cables with a thermoplastic, duroplastic or mineral insulated metal sheath can be used for fixed routing. There may not be any cavities in the core bundle (not hose cable). The extruded embedding material and the fillers, if used (press extruded), must be “non-hygroscopic”. Flame retardant in compliance with IEC 60332-1. Cables for mobile and transportable equipment must have connecting cables with an outer sheath made of heavyduty polychloroprene or an equivalent synthetic elastomer or a heavy-duty rubber insulated cable or connecting cables with a comparably robust construction.

Extension cord

A mobile cable assembled with a coupling connector and socket. The couplings are integrally moulded onto the cable using thermoplastics and contain protective contacts.

Extrusion

The process of continuously forcing both a plastic or elastomer and a conductor core through a die, thereby applying a continuous coating of insulation or jacket to the conductor or core.

Extrusion line

It is powered by a motor and coils through a cylinder in a spiral. The filler is made up of thermoplastic prepared in the form of granules. Granules, i. e. a free-flowing mixture of grains of equal size, are the delivery form of various plastics for cable manufacture; in other words, an extruder is a system in which a continuous supply of granules is heated, compressed, mixed and homogenised.

Farad

A unit of electrical capacity.

Fatigue Resistance

Resistance to metal crystallization which leads to conductors or wires breaking from flexing.

FDDI

Abbreviation for Fibre Distributed Data Interface. Network type made up of a double ring with a 100 Mbit/s transmission rate and using waveguides as the transmission medium.

Feed-Through Insulators

Insulators that carry a metal conductor through the chassis while preventing the 'hot' lead from shorting to the ground chassis.

FEP

Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene is a "Teflon" fluorocarbon resin and is a registered TM of the DuPont Company. This is a melt extrudable fluorocarbon resin.

Fibre cover

Made up of one or more materials and is used to mechanically insulate the fibres and to protect them against damage.

Fieldbus technology

Sensors and actuators are conventionally connected to a controller or evaluation unit using an analogue 4 – 20 mA signal. With this technology, a 2-core cable is necessary for each connection between the sensor or actuator and the controller. In addition, an input/output circuit (I/O) must be provided for each sensor and actuator in the controller (normally a PLC or PC). The picture looks very different when using a field bus system. In this case, all devices are connected to a bus cable (2, 4 or 5 cores depending on the field bus system). An interface card is used instead of the input/output circuits. This saves on I/O cards, reduces the space required in the control cabinet and permanently cuts the wiring costs. In conventional systems, information (e. g. measured values or a fault signal) can only be transmitted in one direction and in very limited amounts. This can be from the sensor to the controller or from the controller to the actuator. By contrast, in a field bus system information can be exchanged bidirectionally via the digital bus. As well as the actual process data such as measured values (e. g. temperature) and control variables (e. g. speed), parameters such as the measuring range, measuring point codes (TAG), filter properties, maintenance or fault signals etc. can be transmitted. The advantages that this brings are obvious. Commissioning and maintenance are simplified and the flexibility of the system (e. g. with central measuring range selection) is improved. This normally also enables cost benefits to be achieved compared to conventional solutions.

Filler

A material used in multi-conductor cables to occupy large interstices formed by the assembled conductors. 2) An inert substance added to a

Filler wire

Usually a tin-coated copper wire which should have contact with the aluminium layer of the screen along the entire cable length. In order to ensure the filler wire doesn't break when the cable bends, it must lie very loosely (undulating) on the cable core. The filler wire should be able to pass over any possible breaks in the screen.

Filler, valley sealer

Filler or support element in individual stranding layers in cables.

Fine Stranded Wire

Stranded wire with component strands of 36 AWG or smaller.

Fire behavior

Property which describes the behaviour of the cable when on fire (in particular, fire propagation).

Flame Resistance

The ability of a material to extinguish flame once the heat source is removed.

Flame Retardance

Ability of a material to prevent the spread of combustion by a low rate of travel so the flame will not be conveyed.

Flame retardant

Thermoplastic and elastomer compounds for insulation and sheathing are influenced by additives so that they are slow to catch fire when heat acts on them.

Flammability

The measure of the material's ability to support combustion.

Flammability Test

A test to determine the ability of a cable to resist ignition when placed near a source of heat or flame and to self-extinguish when removed the heat source.

Flat Cable

A cable with two smooth or corrugated but essentially flat surfaces.

Flat type cable

Several individually insulated conductors in parallel with a sheath for mechanical protection, produced in such a way as to give a rectangular cable cross-section. Used in crane systems (ÖLFLEX® – Crane F).

Flex Life

The measurement of the ability of a conductor or cable to withstand repeated bending.

Flexibility

The ease with which a cable may be bent.

Flexible

The quality of a cable or cable component which allows for bending under the influence of an outside force, as opposed to limpness which is bending due to the cable's own weight.

Fluorethylenpropylen (FEP)

Product from the TEFLON® series. A plastic for high temperatures, with excellent chemical resistance and excellent electrical properties but not economical. TEFLON® is a registered trademark of the company Du Pont de Nemours.

Foil

Plastic foil, metal foil and metal clad plastic foil are used for different purposes. Plastic foil provides mechanical protection, e. g. as padding under a screening braid or around the cores below when stripping to protect against incisions. Metal foil is used for electrical screening.

Frequency

Number of times that an alternating current reverses itself in one second. Expressed in Hertz (Hz), which is one cycle per second.

Frequency

Number of changes of polarity in an alternating current per second; the unit of measure is Hertz (Hz).

FT1

One of several CSA flame test designations for wires and cables which pass the C22.2 No. 0.3 test requirements. (Other designations include FT2, FT4, etc.)

FTP

Abbreviation for Foil Shielded Twisted Pairs; in these cables the twisted pairs of cores are screened by a common plastic clad aluminium foil.

Full duplex

Full duplex transmission allows simultaneous transmission and reception of signals.

GAEB

Abbreviation for “Gemeinsamer Ausschuss Elektronik im Bauwesen” [Joint Committee for Electronics in Construction] and describes the data format in which engineering and planning offices create specifications and tenders for industry, infrastructure and building services projects.Lapp tender texts in the common formats GAEB 90 (*.d81) and GAEB 2000 (*.p81) are available for download from www.lappkabel.de.

Gauge

A term used to denote the physical size of a wire.

General cable tie

General cable ties are coloured or transparent fixing elements (normally made of nylon) that can be used to secure individual wires or cables in a bundle. The teeth on the inside provide a permanent connection.

Glass fibre cable

Used to transmit data. They use light as the transmission medium rather than electric current.Dielectric waveguide, used to transmit signals using light waves. Also known as a fibre.

GOST

Standards institute in Russia (comparable with the VDE in Germany, British Standards in the UK, IMQ in Italy and UTE in France)

Gradient fibre

Light waveguide with a gradient profile, i. e. with a → refraction index profile that constantly changes across the cross-sectional area of the light waveguide. The profile of standard gradient fibres can be approximated as 1 < g < 3 by an exponent profile.

Grid

The exact spacing between the conductors in a ribbon cable.

Ground

A conducting connection between an electrical circuit and the earth or other large conducting body to serve as an earth thus completing the electrical circuit.

Gusset

Cavities that inevitably occur between the cores twisted into a strand due to their circular cross-section. When using sector-shaped conductors, practically no gussets occur.

Halogen Free

Any of the five elements: Fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine and astatine. These elements may be combined with insulation compounds to enhance flame retardancy.

HAR

Quality mark for a harmonised cable complying with CENELEC HD standards, issued only by HAR testing bodies, e. g. VDE, USE, BASEC, USE, SEV.

Hardness

See → Shore

Harmonizing key

→ See Table T6.

Harness

An arrangement of wires and cables, usually with many breakouts, which have been tied together or pulled into a rubber or plastic sheath, used to interconnect an electric circuit.

HD

Abbreviation for harmonisation document. In the EU, HDs have the status of a harmonised European standard (like ENs).

Heat of combustion

The temperature or heat released when a cable is burned (see → Thermal load).

Heat Resistance

Ability of a substance to maintain physical and chemical identity and electrical integrity under specified temperature conditions.

Heat Shock

A test to determine stability of a material by sudden exposure to a high temperature for a short period of time.

Helical Stripe

A continuous, colored, spiral stripe applied to a conductor for circuit identification.

Henry

Unit of inductance such that the induced voltage in volts is numerically equal to the rate of change in current in amperes per second.

Hertz (Hz)

Unit of measure for the frequency of an alternating current (in Germany 50 Hz for mains cables).

Hi-Pot

A test designed to determine the electrical integrity of an insulation.

High Temperature Wire and Cable

Electrical wire and cables having thermal operating characteristics of 150°C and higher.

Hood

The upper section of the housing can have a straight or lateral cable outlet. The hood can be freely combined with an externally mounted, surface mounted or coupling housing.

Hood termination

The insides of the end plates are coated with a thermoplastic adhesive. The end plates are used for sealing pressure monitored, moisture-resistant cables and tubes with a diameter of 5 to 10 mm.

Hook-up Wire

A single insulated conductor used for low-current, low voltage (usually under 600 volts) applications within enclosed electronic equipment.

Hybrid cable

Cable with different transmission media, such as light waveguide, copper conductor, HF conductor.

Hypalon

DuPont's trade name for their chlorosulfonated polyethylene, an ozone resistant synthetic rubber.

Hz

Abbreviation for Hertz.

ICEA

Abbreviation for Insulated Cable Engineers′ Association. A sub-committee of NEMA – USA.

IEC

European Standardization agency; International Electrtechnical Commission.

IEC

Abbreviation for International Electrotechnical Commission. Standards committee for international standardisation of electrical materials and international commission for standardisation in the electrical engineering and electronics sector.

Impact Strength

A test for determining the mechanical punishment a cable can withstand without physical or electrical breakdown by impacting with a given weight dropped a given distance, in a controlled environment.

Impedance

The total opposition that a circuit offers to the flow of alternating current or any other varying current at a particular frequency.

Imprinting

Marking of cables using a relief imprint (no colour). This technique is only possible when the sheath is warm as the marking is impressed into the material positively or negatively.

Inductance

The property of a circuit or circuit element that opposes a change in current flow, thus causing current changes to lag behind voltage changes. It is measured in Henrys.

Industrial machinery for USA

The following general rules apply to construction and operation of machinery in the USA: The machinery must comply with federal safety laws issued by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (O.S.H.A.: www.osha.gov) and the applicable national codes (statutory regulations) at the installation location. Machinery is only classed as safe if it has been designed and manufactured in compliance with applicable standards (NFPA 70, NFPA 79….) and its safety has been tested and declared safe by a Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory (N.R.T.L., www.osha.gov/dts/otpca/nrtl/).

Insertion loss,insertion attenuation

Attenuation caused by inserting an optical component into an optical transmission system.The attenuation that is caused in an optical transmission system by inserting an optical component, e. g. a plug or a → coupler.

Insulated Wire

A conductor of electricity covered with a non-conducting material.

Insulation

A material having high resistance to the flow of electric current. Often called dielectric in radio frequency cable which is used to separate close electrical components, such as cable conductors and circuit components.

Insulation resistance

The electrical resistance of a non-metallic material between two electrodes, measured using a DC voltage.

Intensity

Power density at a surface through which radiation penetrates, e. g. at the radiating surface of a light source or at the cross-sectional area of a light waveguide (standard unit W/cm2).

Interactive

Property of two systems to influence one another in order to exchange messages.

Interbus

At the lowest level of the automation hierarchy model, there are particular requirements for a communication system. Connection costs, real time capability and short cycle times are of crucial importance. The data to be transmitted, normally measured and control values, are typically only a few bits in length. INTERBUS-S, standardised in DIN E 19258, has a summation frame protocol and is designed specifically to meet these requirements. With a clock speed of 500 Kbit/s and a net data rate of approx. 50%, even time-critical controllers can be implemented using a bus system. With around 1,000,000 INTERBUS-S nodes in use worldwide, the system is one of the leading field bus systems. In some areas, e. g. networking of frequency converters and drive technology, it is actually the market leader.

Interface

Connecting point in a technical system that has particular properties enabling connection to another technical system.

Interference

Any undesired electrical signal induced into a conductor by electrical or electromagnetic means.

Internet

Worldwide virtual data network.

Interstices

Voids or valleys between individual strands in a conductor or between insulated conductors in a multi-conductor cable.

Intrinsically safe

Electrical installation that is, in its own right, safe from the point of view of risk of explosion, i. e. no ignitable sparks can occur in the installation. All parts, including the cables, should be blue (RAL 5015) – e. g. at Lapp ÖLFLEX® EB, ÖLFLEX® EB CY, UNITRONIC® EB CY).

IP Code

A system of designations used to indicate the degree of protection provided by a housing against access to hazardous components, ingress of solid foreign bodies and/or water and to provide additional information relating to this protection (e. g. EN 602529).

Irradiation

In insulations, the exposure of the material to high-energy emissions for the purpose of favorably altering the molecular structure by cross-linking.

ISDN

Abbreviation for Integrated Services Digital Network. Integrated service digital telecommunications network. Suitable for transmission of voice, text, images and data.

ISO

Abbreviation for International Organisation for Standardisation. Committee that develops internationally recognised standards.

Jacket

An outer covering, usually nonmetallic, mainly used to protect the cable core from the environment.

Joint

Interconnection point between (data) transmission paths.

KCMIL

Conductor area expressed in thousands of circular mils.

Kink

The cable has been forcefully bend over a sharp edge, causing plastic deformation of the individual strands and wires. This results in grooves that promote breakages on the individual wires.

kV

Abbreviation for Kilovolts. 1 kilovolt equals 1,000 Volts.

LAN

Abbreviation for Local Area Network. Physically limited network used for communication within a building or company.

Laser-printer, ink-jet printer

With this method, small production batches can be printed at low cost as there is no need for a print wheel to be made. The downside, however, is that it produces a print result of lesser quality.

Lay

The axial distance required for one cabled conductor or conductor strand to complete one revolution about the axis around which it is cabled.

Lay Direction

The twist in the cable as indicated by the top strands while looking along the axis of the cable away from the observer. Described as"right hand" or "left hand".

Laying temperature

When installed, the cable temperature should not be below +3 °C. Cables with sheathing and insulation are sensitive to bending and impacts when exposed to cold.

Leading protective ground

The PE contact in a plug establishes the first contact and is the last to disconnect, and is marked as the protective earth symbol.

Leakage current

Leakage current is the current that flows via the functional insulation of a consumable to earth or an external conductive part. It can appear as a pure active current or as an active current with a capacitive value. In VDE 0700-1 “Household and Similar Electrical Appliances – Safety”, the following leakage currents are specified: ● For devices of protection class 0 and 0I 0.5 mA ● For portable devices of protection class I 0.75 mA ● For non-portable motorised equipment of protection class I 3.5 mA ● For non-portable heating equipment of protection class I 0.75 mA or 0.75 mA/kW, max. 5 mA ● For devices of protection class II 0.25 mA ● For devices of protection class III 0.5 mA When taking leakage currents for an entire system (also important for residual current protective equipment) into consideration, both the leakage current (residual current) of the cables and the leakage current of the consumable must be accounted for.

Length of lay, length of twist

The twist length is the distance (measured in the direction of the longitudinal axis) covered by the elements of a layer after being twisted by 360°, e. g. 40 mm. It is usual to specify the number of twists per metre, e. g. 40 mm = 25 twists.

Lever series

To lock the EPIC® rectangular connector, there are single or central levers available for the one-handed locking of upper and lower housing sections, the double levers are used for the two-hand locking.

Li2YCY

Polyethylene screened individual cores.

Li5YCY

TEFLON® PTFE screened individual cores. TEFLON® is a brand name of the company DuPont de Nemours.

Lift cable

Lift cables are control cables with strain relief used for lifts, gantry cranes, teach pads, etc. (e. g. ÖLFLEX® LIFT, ÖLFLEX® CRANE at Lapp).

Line Voltage

The value of the potential existing on a supply or power line.

Link

A link represents a complete section of cabling from the floor distribution board to the data terminal input. It includes all connecting sockets and plugs, installation cables and patch cables. The quality of a link is defined using classes, the quality of the individual components using categories.

LiY

Individual cores (strand) predominantly 0.14 and 0.25 mm2 LiYv: Tin plated individual cores (strand).

LiYCY

Individual cores with copper screening (C stands for copper).

LiYY

Multi-core stranded cable (ÖLFLEX®, UNITRONIC®).

Load

A device that consumes power from a source and uses that power to perform a function.

Longitudinal Shield

A tape shield, flat or corrugated, applied longitudinally with the axis of the core being shielded.

Longitudinal water tightness

Achieved by filling the gaps between the core arrangements with various kinds of filler (e. g. petroleum jelly filling).

Loss factor

The loss factor depends on frequency, temperature and capacitance. This factor is the ratio of effective power to idle power with a sinusoid voltage.

Lower limit temperature

The lower limit temperature is the minimum permissible temperature at which a Heavy Duty connector can still be operated.

Machine set-up for core insulation – Extrusion

The following single units have mainly conventional extrusion lines for core and insulating covers: Overend take-off, wire straightener, wire pre-heater, capacitance bridge, extruder, embossing or marking device, cooling section, eccentricity measuring device, diameter scanner, high-voltage testing device, double roller haul-off machine, accumulator and double bobbin winder.

Magnetic Field

The region within which a body or current experiences magnetic forces.

Magnetic Noise

Caused by change in current level, e.g., AC power line (created magnetic field around the cable) this magnetic field causes the magnetic noise.

Master

Central bus subscriber that controls bus access. All other subscribers operate as slaves (see → ASI).

Master-Slave principle

The master element issues instructions and the slave elements follow them. With decentralised bus control, for example, an automation device acts as the master element and issues access rights for the other components (slave elements – see → ASI).

Material dispersion

With a non-monochromatic light source, the dispersion that results from the dependency of a materials refraction index n on the wavelength and from the light velocity in that material.

Mating cycles

Mating cycles are the number of insertion and extraction cycles a connector can withstand before electrical or mechanical failure in relationship to the connector’s design specification.

Megohm

One million ohms.

Member

A group of insulated wires to be cabled with other stranded groups into multiple-element cable.

Messenger

The linear supporting member, usually a high strength steel wire, used as the supporting element of a suspended aerial cable. The messenger may be an integral part of the cable, or exterior to it.

Mica powder

Natural mineral product that is pulverised and used as a separating agent and lubricant either on its own or mixed with talcum. In the form of foils and strips, mica is also used for insulating conductors exposed to high thermal loads.

Microbending

Bending of fibres that have local axial deviations of a few micrometers and physical wavelengths of a few millimetres, for example. Microbending causes light losses and thus increases the → attenuation of the fibres.

Mil

A unit used in measuring diameter of a wire or thickness of insulation over a conductor. One thousandth of an inch (.001").

Mode

Discrete light wave forms that can propagate in a light waveguide.

Mode dispersion

The signal distortion in a light waveguide caused by overlapping modes with different running times.

Modem

Device for adapting digitally operating data stations for analogue telecommunications channels.

Modulation

A network signal to be transmitted is modified by a carrier signal.

Moisture Absorption

The amount of moisture, in percentage, that a material will absorb under specified conditions.

Moisture Resistance

The ability of a material to resist absorbing moisture from the air or when immersed in water.

Moisture Resistance

The ability of a material to resist absorbing moisture from the air or when immersed in water.

Monomode fibre

Light waveguide with small → core diameter in which only one mode, the basic mode, can be propagated. This fibre type is particularly suitable for broadband transmission over long distances as its → transmission bandwidth is only limited by → chromatic dispersion.

Motor cable

Motor cables are supply cables for electric motors (e. g. ÖLFLEX® SERVO FD at Lapp).

Multiconductor

More than one conductor within a single cable construction.

Multimode fibre

Light waveguide whose core diameter is large compared to the light wavelength and in which a large number of modes can therefore be propagated. A gradient profile (→ gradient fibre) allows the → mode dispersion to be kept low, allowing large transmission bandwidths to be achieved, although these can be exceeded using → monomode fibres.

Mutual capacity, operating capacity

For four, pair or phantom cable circuits: the capacity between the cores a and b of these cable circuits. With one core: the capacity between a conductor and all remaining interconnected conductors of a cable.

Mylar®

DuPont trademark for polyester tape material.

Nanosecond

Billionth of a second. Time unit for the internal switching speed of computers.

National Electrical Code (NEC)

A consensus standard published by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA 70) and incorporated in OHSA regulations. These regulations govern construction and installation of electrical wiring and apparatus in the U.S.

Near-end crosstalk, far end crosstalk

In multi-pair data cables, the field effect of the signal transmission for one pair induces an interference signal in adjacent pairs. Crosstalk does not depend on the length and is greater as the frequency increases. The difference between the effective signal and the interference signal measurable at the adjacent pair is referred to as crosstalk attenuation and is specified in dB. We differentiate between: NEXT (Near End Crosstalk) and FEXT (Far End Crosstalk).

NEC

Abbreviation for National Electrical Code. Group of standards for the safety of electrical equipment, e. g. electrical equipment installations in the low voltage range up to 600 V – USA.

NEMA

National Electrical Manufacturers Association.

NEMCO

Norwegian testing body, similar to the VDE in Germany.

Neoprene

Trade name for polychloroprene synthetic rubber, a compound used for jacketing.

Network

Cable network used to create connections between data stations.

Neutral conductor

Neutral conductors, where used, may not have a smaller cross-section than the outer conductor, see VDE 0100 Part 520, Section 524.2.

NFPA

Abbreviation for National Fire Protection Association. Issuer of NFPA standards and NEC – USA.

NFPA 79

NFPA 79 is the section of the National Electric Code (NEC®) which includes the requirements for electrical wiring of industrial machinery. NFPA 79 generally applies to electrical components used in individual machines and machine configurations operating together (machine groups).The National Fire Protection Association (www.nfpa.org) is the issuer of this important standard. NFPA 79 applies to all electrical and electronic components in machinery with a maximum nominal voltage of 600 V.NFPA 79 was revised in 2006. The aim of this revision was to harmonise NFPA 79 with its European counterpart IEC/EN 60204.

Nominal voltage

The nominal voltage is the voltage to which the structure of the cable relates in terms of its electrical properties. The nominal voltage is expressed by specifying two AC voltages U0/U in V : U0 = Effective value between an outer conductor and earth (non-insulating environment). U = Effective value between two outer conductors in a multi-core cable or a system of single-core cables.

Norms

The German Federal Supreme Court gave the following statement on engineering rules on 14.05.1998: Recognised engineering rules are those that are recognised as correct by the theory and have demonstrated their effectiveness in practice. By contrast, according to the BGH DIN standards are only private engineering regulations with the nature of recommendations, which do reflect the recognised engineering rules but lag behind them or could actually be incorrect.

Numeral identification

See → Colour codes/Numerical identification

Numerical aperture

Sine of the maximum possible launch angle of a light waveguide.

Nylon

A group of polymers that are used for the jacketing of wire and cable.

NYM

These cables (standard cable for fixed installation) are designed for installation above, on and below ground, in dry, damp and wet areas and within walls and concrete, except for direct embedding in shaken, vibrated or compressed concrete.

Ohm

The electrical unit of resistance. The value of resistance through which a potential difference of one volt will maintain a current of one ampere.

Ohmic resistance

The resistance per unit length records the losses in the metallic conductors. The conductor dimensions, material and the temperature determine the DC resistance Ro?. Because of skin effect, the conductor resistance increases as the frequency rises. It also shows a linear increase as the cable length increases.

Ohm’s Law

E = I X R. Voltage (E) is directly proportional to the product of current (I) and resistance (R) of circuit.

Oil Aging

Cable aged in an accelerated manner by placement in an oil bath and heated to a p re-set temperature for a stated time.

ÖNORM-Format

Austrian format for invitations to tender.

Operating supplies

All objects needed when using electrical energy, e. g. switch, motors and cables.

Operating temperature range

The range between the lower (lowest permissible temperature) and upper (highest permissible temperature) limit temperature that may be utilised by the operator.

Operating voltage

The actual voltage in a grid. This can fluctuate by up to 5%, caused by the alternating use of consumers.

Opposite direction of lay

See → Stranding

Order length

The length of cable ordered by the customer.

OSHA

Abbreviation for Occupation Safety and Health Act. Specifically the Williams-Steiger law passed in 1970 covering all factors relating to safety in places of employment.

OTDR

Measuring method for testing glass fibres for faults or transmission quality. OTDR stands for Optical Time Domain Reflectometer.

Outdoor cable

Cables suitable for outdoor laying in the ground, in pipes, in the air, in rivers and lakes, in mines, on ships, for interior spaces or the most varied of industrial plants, etc. The design of the cable depends on the electrical, thermal, mechanical and chemical laying and operating conditions.

Outer conductor

Conductors that connect current sources with consumables. For example, C1, C2 or C3 in a three-phase system but not conductors come from the midpoint or neutral point. The conductor is arranged concentrically around the inner conductor of a coaxial pair.

Outer diameter

Diameter of the smallest circle that will enclose the surface of the sheath.

Outer Jacket

Refers to the outer covering of a cable.

Overall Diameter

Finished diameter over wire or cable.

Overcoat

Individual strands of tinned copper wire stranded together and then covered with a tin coating.

Overcurrent

If the permitted ampacity is exceeded, this is referred to as overcurrent.

Overcurrent protection devices

Overcurrent protection devices break the current supply in case of overcurrent. They include overcurrent protective switches and safety fuses.

Overlap

The amount the trailing edge laps over the leading edge of a tape wrap.

Oxygen Index

Percentage of oxygen necessary to support combustion of a material.

Oxygen index

Percentage oxygen content in the ambient air that is necessary to maintain combustion after removal of a flame. As the natural oxygen content in the air is approx. 23%, materials with an oxygen index of greater than 24 are generally self-extinguishing when the flame is removed. This term comes up primarily in connection with halogen free cables.

Pad

Non-conductive element made of insulating material (PVC) or textile, used to fill up gaps in a strand group. Also known as a dummy core.

Pair

Two stranded → cores within a larger strand group (see → Element). The inductive coupling of two parallel conductors is reduced by twisting the two cores together as tightly as possible (→ twist length).

Pairing

The union of two insulated single conductors through twisting.

Panel mount base

Panel mount bases are designed for the feeding through of cables from below. The panel mount base is mounted to control cabinet walls for connecting control or power cables.

PAP

A commonly used term for air core (unfilled) direct burial telephone cable with a corrugated aluminum shield.

Parallel Cable

Two insulated conductors run parallel in a cable.

Patch cable

Patch cable complying with EN 50173/ISO IEC 11801 is used to provide a flexible connection between ports in patch fields and the connection to telecommunication sockets.

Patch field

A patch field is the switching device that is used to set up, establish and route connections.

PCB Solder Contacts

Circular contacts which mount directly to a circuit board.

PE

Physical Earth, the same as ground

Peak Voltage

Maximum instantaneous voltage.

Photodiode

Semiconductor diode that absorbs light and feeds the charged particles released to an external circuit as a photoelectric current. A distinction is made between PIN photodiodes and avalanche photodiodes.

Photovoltaic

Photovoltaics refers to the direct conversion of solar energy into electrical energy using solar cells. Photovoltaics is a branch of solar technology, which includes other technical uses of solar energy.

Pick

Distance between two adjacent crossover points of braid filaments. The measurement in picks per inch indicates the degree of coverage.

Pigtail

Short part of a fibre optic cable on a laser diode or connector. The pigtail is the coupling link between a component and transmission fibre and is permanently fixed to the component.

PiMF

Abbreviation for pairs in metal foil.

Pitch

In flat cable, the nominal distance between the index edges of two adjacent conductors.

Pitch Diameter

Pitch Diameter: Diameter of a circle passing through the center of the conductors in any layer of a multi conductor cable.

Plastic Deformation

Change in dimensions under load that is not recovered when the load is removed.

Plasticizer

A chemical agent added to plastics to make them softer and more pliable.

Plenum

The air return path of a central air handling system, either ductwork or open space over a dropped ceiling or beneath a floor.

Plenum Cable

Fire and smoke resistant cable Listed by Underwriters Laboratories for installation in plenums without the need for conduit.

Plug

The part of the two mating halves of a connector which is movable when not fastened to the other mating half.

Pollution level

Numerical value specifying the anticipated pollution of the micro-environment. Pollution levels 1, 2 and 3 are used. The pollution level is used to assign air gaps and creep distances. In industrial environments, the pollution level is typically 3.

Polyamide

Polyamide is a polymer. Polyamide is cold resistant with impact loads, impact resistant and abrasion resistant.

Polycarbonate

The prerequisite for resistance is that no aggressive components such as emollients (PVC) or solvents attach the polycarbonate. The material swells up, which can lead to stress cracks.

Polychloroprene-rubber

Synthetic rubber is resistant to solvents, has very good strength properties and is flame resistant, however very expensive (high-quality rubber cables, Pattex glue).

Polyester

Polyethylene terephthalate that is used extensively in the production of a high strength moisture resistant tape or film used as a cable core wrap.

Polyethylene

A thermoplastic material having the chemical identity of polymerized ethylene.

Polymer

A substance made of many repeating chemical units or molecules. The term polymer is often used in place of plastic, rubber, or elastomer.

Polyolefin

A family of thermoplastics based upon the unsaturated hydrocarbons known as olefins. When combined with butylene or styrene polymers they form compounds such as polyethylene and polypropylene.

Polypropylene

A thermoplastic polymer of propylene.

Polyuretane

Extremely impact resistant, difficult to strip, strong reset forces. (PUR, 11Y, Q ).

Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)

A thermoplastic material composed of polymers of vinyl chloride that may be rigid or flexible, depending on specific formulation.

Porosity

Multiple air voids in an insulation or jacket wall.

Power Cables

Cables of various sizes, construction and insulation, single or multi-conductor, designed to distribute primary power to various types of equipment.

Power dissipation factor

Power that is converted into heat or other energy losses.

Pre-Wiring

The practice of concealing station wire or cable in the walls of buildings while they are being constructed. It is cheaper and more satisfactory for the owner.

Preform

Glass rod from which the glass fibres for light waveguides are drawn. When drawing the glass fibres, the ratio of core glass to shell glass is maintained.

Print wheel

This procedure is generally only a cost-effective option for average or large batches as a new print wheel is required for every change made to the print. Print wheels can, however, be used for geometrical logos and inverse printing. Print wheel results are also relatively easy to remove and wipe away.

Profibus

The Profibus network is based on the principle of master-slave communication. A central controller – the field bus master – cyclically reads the information from the field devices – the field bus slaves – and writes their output values. In a Profibus DP network, a high-speed transmission rate of up to 12 Mbit/s is possible. It is based on the European standard EN 50170.

Protective conductor

(Symbol PE) A conductor that is necessary for certain protective measures against shock currents to create the electrical connection to subsequent parts. The protective conductor is marked in green/yellow (GNYE) in cables.

PTFE

Abbreviation for polytetrafluoroethylene, TEFLON® plastic (PTFE); a trade name of the company Du Pont de Nemours.

Pull Strength

The maximum pulling force that can be safely applied to a cable without damage.

PUR

Abbreviation for polyurethane; a ductile, abrasion resistant thermoplastic alternative to rubber, e. g. in ÖLFLEX® 400P, ÖLFLEX® 540P.

Put-Up

Refers to the packaging of wire and cable. The term itself refers to the quantity of product that is ready to be stored or shipped.

PVC

Abbreviation for polyvinylchloride.

PVC-powder additive

Additives are added to PVC mixtures as matting agents, lubricants, colour pigments, wax for smooth surfaces.

Quad

Stranding type in which the four individual cores are twisted into a quad (telecommunications cables).

RAL

The RAL colours with four-digit numbers have been a yardstick in colouring for more than 70 years. The collection of colours currently includes more than 200 colours. The basic collection for mat shades is the RAL 840-HR register. The collection for gloss shades is the RAL 841-GL register. The basic collections are continuously updated in line with the requirements of industry. These collections cover a wide range of applications. The registers provide a colour template for designs, but also include safety and signal colours and comply with the colour specifications in DIN standards.

Rated Current

The rated current is the current at which a connector can continuously (not intermittently) conduct through all contacts simultaneously without exceeding the upper limit temperature.

Rated Temperature

The maximum temperature at which an electric component can operate for extended periods without loss of its basic properties.

Rated Voltage

The maximum voltage at which an electric component can operate for extended periods without undue degradation or safety hazard.

REACH

REACH directive (EC) No, 1907/2006 on registration, evaluation, authorisation and restriction of chemical substances With the REACH directive, the EU created a harmonised system for the registration, evaluation, authorisation and restriction of chemicals – referred to as REACH for short. The purpose of the directive is to ensure a high level of protection for human health and the environment.

Receiver sensitivity

The light output required by the receiver for low interference signal transmission. For digital signal transmission, the average light output (in W or dBm) required to achieve a bit error rate of 10 – 9 is normally specified.

Receiver, optical

Assembly for converting optical signals into electrical signals. It consists of a photodiode with a connecting fibre and plug and a low-noise amplifier and electronic signal processing circuits. Where possible, the main components of the receiver are normally combined into a compact sub-unit known as the reception module.

Reel

To keep setup times and transport costs down, the cable industry tries to supply large cables and long cable lengths on reels. In addition, this saves on connecting points and the associated fittings with longer cable lengths. The length supplied is limited by various factors, including the tensile strength and flexibility of the cable and the mass or cable volume. There are a large number of different reel sizes in the cable industry.

Reel size choice

Most winding systems in the cable industry now have tables showing the capacity and the product lengths and bending radii that can be wound, ensuring that the correct choice of reel can be made.

Reel structure

Reels consist of a circular core, which is bounded on both sides by flanges of larger diameter. The flange diameter is also the nominal size of the reel. Steel sockets are fitted in the centre of the reel flanges to hold the drive axes or barrels. These prevent damage to the reel flanges when winding and unwinding. On one reel flange (up to 1800 mm nominal size) there is a through hole for inserting one end of the cable; on larger reels, an inlet spiral is fitted to hold the end of the cable. This means that both ends of the wound length of cable are accessible and final inspection of the cable length can be carried out. Shipping reels are normally made of pine or spruce wood.

Reeling

This refers to the ability of cables to withstand constant winding and unwinding over a long period of time without sustaining damage. For mobile consumers (e. g. a crane), the cable length required for the different working positions is carried on a reel. Constant winding and unwinding makes high demands on the cable construction, which means that only special cables are suitable.

Reference earth

Part of earth considered as conductive that lies outside the zone of influence of any earthing arrangement.

Reflexion

Signal reflections occur at coupling points between components such as plugs and cables and, in copper networks, can be attributed to different characteristic impedances: In cases of extreme differences in characteristic impedance, this leads to signal distortion.

Refractive index

The factor n, by which the light velocity in an optically dense medium (e. g. glass) is smaller than in free space. More accurate term: Phase refraction index.

Refractive index distribution, index profile

Progression of the refractive index n across the cross-sectional area of a fibre optic cable.

Reinforcement

A material used to strengthen or give dimensional stability to another material.

Resin

An organic substance of natural or synthetic origin characterized by being polymeric in structure and predominantly amorphous. Most resins, though not all, are of high molecular weight and consist of long chain or network molecular structure.

Resistance

Resistance = Voltage/Current: “Obstruction” of the current flow, expressed in Ohm. The lower the cross-section, the greater the resistance. The more Ohms, the weaker the current flow.See also → Corrosion resistance, ozone resistance, radiation-resistant cables.

Resistant

The cable has a resistance to certain substances, i. e. they do not destroy it.

Retention of cable glands

The ability of a cable gland to limit the movement of a secured cable under static load.

Retractile Cable

A cable that returns by its own stored energy from an extended condition to its original contracted form.

RFID

RFID stands for Radio Frequency Identification and means that data can be transmitted with no contact or line of sight.

RG/U

Abbreviation for Radio Government, Universal. RG is the military designation for coaxial cable and U stands for "general utility."

Ribbon Cable

A flat cable of individually insulated conductors lying parallel and held together by means of adhesive or woven textile yarn.

Ringing Out

The process of locating or identifying specific conductive paths by means of passing current through selected conductors.

Rise Time

The time required for the initially zero potential existing on transmission line (which is terminated in its characteristic impedance) to change from 10% to 90% of its full DC value after a DC potential source is instantaneously applied.

RJ45

An RJ45 connection is an eightpin miniature connector system, e. g. for patch cables. The connector is standardised to comply with the ISO/IEC 11801 cabling standard.

RoHS

The EC directive 2002/95/EC for limiting the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment governs the use of hazardous substances in equipment and components. Along with the applicable implementation in national law are referred to by the abbreviation RoHS (Restriction of (the use of certain) hazardous substances ).

Route warning tape

In excavations, the greatest damage occurs on cables already laid in the ground. For this reason, route warning tapes are laid around 40 cm above the laid cables, which draws the attention of excavator drivers to the cable route when excavating.

Routing

The path followed by a cable or conductor.

Rubber insulated cable

Cable with rubber sheathing. For example, H05 RR/RN, H07 RR/RN at Lapp (previously: NMHöu/NSHöu).

Rupture

In the breaking strength or tensile strength tests the point at which the material physically separates or comes apart, as opposed to elongation, yield strength, etc.

S-FTP

The structure of shielded foil and braid twisted pair (S-FTP) cables is made up of a foil screen over all pairs, over which an additional screen of tin plated copper braiding is placed.

SAE

Abbreviation for Society of Automotive Engineers.

Same direction of lay

See → Stranding

Sample test, screening

Testing of production lengths or production parts in relation to production quantity.

Screened cable

Cables with screen in outer layer, over the cores or in double sheath. The screen can be made from braiding, foil or solid metal. With the foil version, a drain wire from the filler strand is used. Identified with a “C”, and with “CY” for additional PVC sheathing if copper braiding used.

Self-Extinguishing

Property of a (synthetic) material to extinguish itself when a flame is removed from the material.

Self-Supporting Cable

Any cable that incorporates a steel rope or steel sheath for added tensile strength, thus enabling it to be suspended between widely spaced supports.

SEMCO

Swedish testing body, similar to the VDE.

Semi-conductor

Materials whose electrical conductivity depends on various influences, e. g. current direction, temperature, incidence of light. By mixing with conductive materials (carbon, graphite), insulating materials (PVC) can be modified to give semiconductor properties.

Semi-Rigid PVC

A hard semi-flexible polyvinylchloride compound with low plasticizer content.

Semiconductor bandgap

Energetic distance between the valence band and the conduction band of a semiconductor.

Separating layer

Foils positioned between the individual layers on the cable core to prevent harmful influences.

Separator

A layer of insulating material such as textile, paper, polyester, etc. Used to improve stripping qualities, flexibility, mechanical or electrical protection of the components.

Serve

A filament or group of filaments such as fibers or wires, wound around a central core.

Served Wired Armor

Spiral wrap of soft galvanized steel wires wrapped around a cable to afford mechanical protection and increase the cable pulling tension characteristics.

SEV

Abbreviation for Schweizerischer Elektrotechnischer Verein [Swiss Electrical Engineering Association], testing body similar to the VDE.

Sheath

The outer covering or jacket of a cable.

Sheath print

The customer receives information about the printing of cable sheaths regarding design, testing- and operation-related markings, colour codes, customer-specific markings and manufacturer markings. The prints are created using laser and ink-jet printers or print wheels. They are, however, of inferior quality to the embossed letters as they wear away relatively quickly or can be rubbed off.

Sheathed cable

Designation for NYM and other sheathed cables.

Shield

A metallic layer placed around a conductor or group of conductors to prevent electrostatic interference between the enclosed wire and external fields.

Shield Coverage

The physical area of a cable that is actually covered by the shielding material and is expressed in percent.

Shielding

A cover made of conductive material that is placed over an individual core, a group of cores or all cores in a cable. Screening is used to protect the cable against penetration by electrical and/or magnetic fields and to prevent electrical interference from escaping from a cable. Screening takes various forms: a copper wire braid or → covering, copper or aluminium foil wrapping or enclosed tubular copper or aluminium bodies. For the screening, the covering density is defined in percent, relative to the area located below the braiding.

Shipping reels

The correct choice of shipping reel is a crucial factor in the quality of a cable from winding to installation. The reel size and thus the winding volume is determined by the diameter and length of the material to be wound and the mass of the cable. The delivery agreement between the manufacturer and the customer is determined by the diameter and mass from the production design and the product length. It is critical that the bending radius of the cable, which determines the size of the reel core, is maintained.

Shock Test

A test to determine the ability of a cable to withstand a violent physical concussion such as might occur during handling or use.

Shore

Hardness of the cable sheath. The definition is: The resistance to penetration by another body, which is measured without exception before the occurrence of damage. Shore A test is used for soft plastics, Shore D test for harder plastics.

SIA

Swiss format for invitations to tender.

Signal

A current used to convey information, either in digital, analog, audio or video.Solid Conductor: A conductor consisting of a single wire.

Signal cable

Signal cables are used to control the accuracy and precision of electric motors. (For example, ÖLFLEX® connecting and control cables, ÖLFLEX® SERVO, UNITRONIC® data cables at Lapp).

Single conductor

Conductor which, unlike a strand, consists of just a single wire. A rigid wire is suitable for fixed installation.

Single wire

See → Cable, single-wire.

Single-mode fibre

Waveguide in which only a single mode can be propagated at the operating wavelength.

Single–wired conductor

A single-wire conductor consists of just one wire.

Skin effect

The higher the frequency of the effective or interference signal, the more the high frequency current is pushed towards the surface. The skin effect is the property of an alternating or high frequency current in a conductor to move towards the surface due to field line induction processes. This limits the penetration depth of an external electromagnetic field into the object and thus its effectiveness inside.

Slave

Subscriber in a network that can only communicate in data exchange when addressed by the master (see → ASI).

SNA

Abbreviation for System Network Architecture. Network architecture concept that enables data to be transmitted between different types of computer.

Specific Gravity

The ratio of the density (mass per unit volume) of a material to that of water.

Specific volume resistance

The specific volume resistance [Ohm m] results from the measured volume resistance [Ohm] multiplied by the measuring area [m²] divided by the sample length [m]. VDE 0207, Part 4 and VDE 0303, Part 30.

Speed of signal propagation

Signals propagate in all cables at a speed that is always lower than the speed of light. The NVP value specifies the ratio of this speed to the propagation speed of light.

Spiral cable

Flexible cables that are formed into a “spiral spring”. The cable is wound onto a mandrel. The addition of heat (tempering) reduces the tensions in the plastic caused by the winding process, which means that the cable retains the spiral shape in a stress free condition after cooling. When expanded, the spiral extends and, when the force is no longer acting upon it, returns to its original condition.

Splice

Connection of two light waveguides created by melting their ends.Fixed connection between two light waveguides. A distinction is made between bonded and welded splices (→ Welded light waveguide connection).

Stabiliser

a) A component used in some plastics to obtain certain physical and chemical properties during processing and the usage time. b) Additives (e. g. lead, tin or cadmium salts) for plastics. They delay or counteract the decomposition and aging process that occurs when exposed to thermal loads.

Step index fibre

Light waveguide with a stepped profile, i. e. with a refraction index profile that is characterised by a constant refraction index within the core and a sharp decline in the refraction index at the boundary of the core and the sheath.

STP

In twisted pair cables with foil screening of the individual pairs and an overall braided screening (STP = Individually Screened Foil and Braid Twisted Pair), the cores are twisted in pairs and individually screened with a metallic foil, to achieve exceptionally low near end crosstalk. An additional overall screen is then added.

Strain relief of cable glands

The ability of a cable gland to limit the movement of a secured cable under a dynamic and torsional load.

Strand

The individual wires in a conductor combined into a bundle; the number and individual wire thickness varies according to the desired cross-section. The individual wires are either bundled by stranding or by twisting. Individual cores, e. g. LiY, H05V-K, H07V-K.

Stranded Conductor

A conductor composed of groups of wires twisted together.

Stranding

The individual elements of cables are wound parallel around a central element. The elements can be the individual wires in a conductor or the cores or groups of cores themselves. Depending on requirements, the elements are twisted or stranded with different twist lengths. This is done in concentric layers, one on top of another, according to the number of elements. If the subsequent layer of the element is stranded in the same direction as the preceding layer, this is known as parallel lay stranding, as opposed to cross lay (reversed lay) stranding, where each subsequent layer is stranded in the opposite direction to the previous one. The stranding has an “S” lay if the stranding direction runs to the left as an observer looks at it, or a “Z” lay if the stranding runs to the right: A distinction is also made between stranding techniques with and without back twist.

Stranding machine, twister

Stranding machines are used to strand the components of a cable. Different types of stranding machines include single twist, double twist, multiple twist, high-speed, basket, SZ and universal stranding machines.

Strip Force

The force required to remove a small section of insulating material from the conductor it covers.

Strip line

Strip lines are used as fixed signal transmission cables in control and steering technology, measurement and data processing technology. They can contain up to 40 cores which lie parallel to each as a result of the welded insulating cover. Single cores can be separated from the strip line, without causing any damage to the insulating cover. Their flat arrangement means they can be guided through narrow slots or openings. They are fixed in place using brackets or adhesive.

Styrol

Is used as an insulating material for telecommunication cables (→ Dielectric). It has a good strength value, however is not resistant to solvents.

Suggested Working Voltage

AC voltage that can be applied between adjacent conductors.

Super conduction

The property of metals and oxides to lose their electrical resistance due to cooling when a so-called transition temperature is reached.

Supporting cable

Because of their small dimensions, they are used for installation in small and miniature equipment.

Supporting core

Strands of hemp, steel or plastic are incorporated into the construction as supporting elements or to absorb tensile forces. In most cases, the carrier organ is positioned next to the core, i. e. in the middle of cables. However, there are also constructions in which one or two steel strands are positioned outside the bunch of cores but below a shared outer sheath.

Surface mount base

Lower housing sections with an enclosed base are referred to as surface-mounted. Surface mounted bases are available with a cable outlet on the right-hand side or on both sides of the housing.

Synthetic india rubber

Butyl synthetic rubber has a high resistance to ageing and lower gas permeability. It is highly resistant to chemicals.

T-Coupler

Optical component for combining the light from two light waveguides (see also → Coupler). Conversely, it can also be used to split the light output in one light waveguide into two outgoing light waveguides.

Take-up system

Sheathed cables are generally wrapped around wooden or process drums. The most common types of winding devices are bottom roller winders, axial winders and barrel winders. Depending on their flexural loading, tensile strain, torsional strain, design, storage, mechanical load and transport, cables are individually wrapped and delivered on drums, bobbins, in coils or barrels.

Talcum

Talcum is a mineral, slightly fatty natural product. It is used in powder form as a separating agent or lubricant. It is also used when mixed with mica. When sheathing a strand of cores, to prevent the sheathing material that is applied when hot from sticking to the core insulation, the strand is dusted with talcum first. As well as the separating effect, this greatly reduces the friction between the individual elements of the cable and thus promotes flexibility and stripping.

Tape

The stranded assembly, comprising several cores, is surrounded by the tape. Generally, the tape is made from one or several synthetic or paper band layers.

Tape wrapping

Cables can be wrapped in a variety of different insulating materials. The tape is always helically wrapped around the cable as the taping machine operates in a rotary motion and the pull-off movement is always in a longitudinal direction. Several layers of paper or plastic tape are wrapped around the cable stranding or the cable core.

TDR

The Time Domain Reflectometry measuring method is used to locate faults in copper cables. The running time and shape of a reflected pulse enables the possible location of the fault to be determined relatively accurately. For PVC insulated cores, this value is approx. 0.541.

Teflon®

Is a registered trademark of Dupont and is used in relation to products manufactured with Dupont’s fluoropolymer products.

Telephone cord

Cables to or in telecommunication devices which have a high flexural loading or flexibility.

Temperature range

If the specified minimum temperature range is not reached, no mechanical forces may act on the cable as otherwise the insulation will break (rigidity of polymer chains). If the maximum temperature is exceeded, the insulation begins to melt (decomposition of polymer chains). Important! With every change of temperature, the resistance of the conductor also changes.

Temperature Rating

The maximum temperature at which an insulating material may be used in continuous operation without loss of its basic properties.

Tensile load

The maximum force with which a cable can be loaded under defined conditions.

Tensile Strength

The pull stress required to break a given specimen.

Test Voltage

The test voltage is the maximum voltage at which a connector will not be subjected to flashover under the set conditions.

Tex

The fineness of fibres is determined using the “fineness in Tex” system. This is a physical variable. 1 Tex = a fibre that has a mass of 1g at a length of 1000 m. Example: Polyester silk has a rating of 7 Tex = 1000 m of silk weighs 7 g.

Thermal Rating

The maximum and/or minimum temperature at which a material will perform its function without undue degradation.

Thermal splice

A thermal splice is a connection between light waveguides created by fusing the ends of the conductors.

Thermocouple

A device consisting of two dissimilar metal in physical contact, which when heated will develop an emf output.

Thermoplastic

A material that will soften, flow or distort appreciably when subjected to heat and pressure. They are used maily as jacket and insulation materials for cables and wires.

Thermoset

A material which hardens or sets by heat, chemical or radiation cross-linking techniques and which, once set, cannot be resoftened by heating.

Thomson measuring bridge for resistance measurement

Primarily used to measure very low resistances. The measuring range is between 10-6 and one Ohm. It is independent of voltage changes. The measured result is not falsified by the resistance of the measuring lead and other transition resistances (see also → Electrical resistance).

Three Conductor Cable

Three insulated conductors assembled with other necessary cable components (shield, filler, etc.) to form a core, protected by an overall jacket.

Tight buffer tube

Fibre type used in light waveguides, with a solid plastic layer attached directly to the outer glass.

Tin

Tin is used for tin plating copper wires.

Tinned Copper

Tin coating added to copper to aid in soldering and inhibit corrosion.

Tinned Wire

Copper wire that has been coated with a layer of tin or solder to simplify soldering.

Torsion

Twisting of the cable about the longitudinal axis. VDE0298, Part 300, Section 5.4.4: Flexible cables are not generally intended for torsional loads. In cases where this kind of torsional load cannot be avoided, the construction of the cable and the type of installation must be agreed between the user and the cable manufacturer.

Tracer thread

A thread whose structure, colour or colour combination is registered and protected as a trademark by a cable manufacturer. It provides information about the manufacturer of the relevant cables (at Lapp, the colour is ochre yellow).

Train signal cable

Designed for voltages up to 600 V. Depending on their purpose, the cores are twisted in fours or layers. They are PE insulated. Because of the strong electromagnetic fields on railways, an effective copper screen and steel tape armouring must be fitted under the outer sheath.

Transceiver

This is the active component of an Ethernet LAN for connection of terminals to the electrical bus cable with collision detection and signal adaptation functions. Transceiver is a combination of the words transmitter and receiver. The transceiver performs transmitting, monitoring, reception and interference functions.

Transfer impedance

Measure for the quality of the screening, defined as the ratio of the voltage along the screening in the system subject to interference to the current of the system causing the interference.The transfer impedance (coupling resistance) is the key variable for the quality of the screen and depends on the frequency. It is the ratio of the voltage drop along a screen on the side with interference (outside) to the interference current on the other side (inside) of the screen. The coupling resistance is determined by the construction of the screen, the skin effect and the capacitive coupling.

Transfer rate

The frequency at which the level of the transmission function of a light waveguide has reduced to half of its value at a frequency of zero, i. e. at which the signal attenuation has increased by 3 dB. As the transmission bandwidth of a light waveguide is approximately the reciprocal of its length (mode mixing), the bandwidth/length product is often specified as a quality feature.

Transmission function

A light waveguide acts as a low-pass filter for the signals to be transmitted. While only continuous wave attenuation is important for low signal frequencies (see also → Attenuation), higher signal frequencies are also attenuated as a result of the dispersion in the light waveguide. The transmission function of a light waveguide makes this a complex issue; however the phase distortion is normally so low that it is sufficient to specify the figure for the function.

Transmitter, optical

Assembly for converting electrical signals into optical signals. It consists of a transmission diode with connecting fibre, plug and driver amplifier and other electronic circuits. Particularly in laser diodes, a photodiode with control amplifier is required for monitoring and stabilising the radiated power. In many cases, a temperature sensor and a Peltier cooler are also required to stabilise the operating temperature. Where possible, the main components of the transmitter are normally combined into a compact sub-unit known as the transmission module.

Tray

A cable tray is a unit or assembly of units or sections, and associated fittings, made of noncombustible materials forming a rigid structural system used to support cables.

Tray Cable

A factory-assembled multiconductor or multipair control, signal or power cable specifically approved under the National Electrical Code for installation in trays.

Triaxial cable

Three-conductor cable that is made up of three connected axes. It consists of one conductor in the centre, the second conductor concentric around the first and the third conductor is isolated from the first two, normally by insulation, a braid and an outer sheath.

Trimming

Cables are reeled at standard lengths of, for example, 50 m, 100 m and 500 m on cable drums or coils (single cores) and placed in storage. Should a customer require a length shorter than the standard length, the cable is cut to size. The customer is then charged for this adjustment.

TTP

Time Triggered Protocol systems in data technology communicate continuously at predefined time intervals. The bandwidth is 5 Mbit/s asynchronous and 25 Mbit/s synchronous (see also CAN bus system).

Tube cable

Coaxial carrier frequency cable with copper inner conductor, PE discs as spacers, a tube-shaped bend copper tape as the outer conductor and a lead or aluminium sheath. They are used as long-distance cables for transmission of TV signals and communications.

Twist protection

Protection of light waveguide connectors against twisting. Without this protection, the end faces of the light waveguide would be next to one another and become scratched, significantly increasing attenuation.

Twisted Pair

A twisted pair is composed of two small separately insulated wires twisted together without a common covering.

Type test

Test to be performed periodically that includes all parameters that can influence the result. This test must be performed again if advancements or new developments have been made or the material, technology or design has been changed. The frequency of type tests is set out in legislation, contracts or operationally.

UF

Thermoplastic Underground feeder and branch circuit cable.

UGF

Abbreviation for ultra high frequency, 300 to 3000 MHz.

UL

Abbreviation for Underwriters Laboratories. American testing body, similar to the VDE in Germany.

UL Approbation for cable glands

Approval is particularly required if the machinery or system in which the cable gland has been used is to be exported to the USA. Approval is granted after a test complying with UL 514B and is confirmed by a certificate. The number of this certificate is known as the “file number” (e. g. E 79903).

UL listing mark for listed cables & wires

Cables intended for use as fixed wiring in buildings used for residential, commercial or industrial purposes. Listed cables not only have to meet individual UL product standards, but must also comply with the relevant articles of the National Electrical Code (NEC). Listed cables and wires can be used both for factory wiring of electrical equipment, devices, appliances and machines as well as for field wiring of industrial machinery and systems in accordance with NFPA 79. Approval marking on the product: (UL) = UL Listing mark.

UL recognition mark for AWM cables and wires

Appliance wiring material or “AWM” comprises cables intended solely for use in factory-wired electrical equipment, devices, appliances, control cabinets and industrial machinery as part of a “listed assembly“. AWM is not intended for field wiring purposes. Cables with UL AWM style labelling must be used for the applications stipulated by the individual style designation.

Ultraviolet radiation

This invisible radiation is the section of the electromagnetic spectrum that is next to the visible range (UV radiation).

Underground cable

Cables are often designated according to their usage conditions. Underground telecommunication cables include outdoor cables designed to be routed underground.

Unilay

More than one layer of helically laid wires with the direction of lay and length of lay the same for all layers.

Unit conductor of power cables

Unit conductors are solely used as large conductors, from approx. 400 square millimetres. In order to reduce the large amount of heat required during welding, the bundles are separated into subconductors during assembly and rejoined again in a new stranding procedure.

Unit cores of fiberoptic cables

Several coated fibre optic cables lightly undulating and loose in small plastic pipes which are filled with Vaseline or swelling powder.

Unit of wires

Bare wire bundles are the initial product for copper strands. They are also used as copper strands in wire screens (non-insulated product).

Upper limit temperature

The upper limit temperature is the maximum permissible temperature, at which a Heavy Duty connector can still be operated, due to the heating up of the contacts by the ambient temperature or other environmental conditions.

UTE

Abbreviation for Union Technique de l'Electricité (France).

Vagrancy currents

Currents that do not flow through the electrical mains (L1, L2, L3, N) are referred to as vagrancy currents.

Valley

Any void between the insulated conductors of a cable or between a cable core and its covering. See also interstice.

VDE

Abbreviation for Verband Deutscher Elektrotechniker e.V., [German Electrical Engineering Federation], VDE testing and certification institute – VDE testing body.

VDE Approbation for cable glands

Approval is granted after a test complying with DIN/EN 50262 and is confirmed by an approval certificate,

VDEW

Abbreviation for Vereinigung Deutscher Elektrizitätswerke [Association of German Electricity Plants].

Velocity of Propagation

The speed of an electrical signal down a length of cable compared to speed in free space expressed as a percentage. It is the reciprocal of the square root of the dielectric constant of the cable insulation.

Vibrator, chopper

A pole reversal of medium power for generation of an AC voltage from a DC voltage.

Video Pair Cable

A transmission cable containing low-loss pairs with an impedance of 125 ohms. Used for TV pick-ups, closed circuit TV, telephone carrier circuits, etc.

Volt

A unit of electrical pressure. One volt is the amount of pressure that will cause one ampere of current in one ohm of resistance.

Volt meter

Instrument for measuring voltage.

Voltage

Electrical potential or electromotive force expressed in volts.

Voltage Rating

The highest voltage that may be continuously applied to a wire in conformance with standards or specifications.

Voltage, tension

Electrical unit of measure, measured in Volts, i. e. Voltage = Resistance x Current.

Voltage-level classes

We refer to four voltage levels. Everything that is < 1000 Volt (< 1 kV) belongs to the low voltage class. Voltages > 1 kV are classed as high voltage. In practice (no statutory specification), the high voltage class is divided into: Medium voltage 1 kV – 30 kV, high voltage 50 kV – 150 kV, extremely high voltage 150 kV – 400 kV. There are several different voltage levels within these classes.

VSWR (Voltage Standing Wave Ratio)

Ratio of the transmitted signal voltage to the reflecting signal voltage measured along the transmission path.

Vulcanising

Technological process in which temperature, pressure and the use of sulphur compounds, for example, cause the molecules in rubber to form cross linkages. It is this process that gives rubber its permanent elasticity and makes it suitable for industrial use (see → Cross linking).

Vulcanization

An irreversible process during which a rubber or polymeric compound through a change in its chemical structure (for example, cross-linking) becomes a thermoset.

VW-1

A flammability rating established by Underwriters Laboratories for wires and cables that pass a specially designed vertical flame test (formerly designated FR-1).

Wall Thickness

The thickness of the applied insulation or jacket.

WAN

WAN is the abbreviation for Wide Area Network. This is a large network, which can extend world­wide. WANs normally connect LANs (Local Area Networks) via telephone cables. Routers and gateways connect the LANs using different technologies. WAN is a wide area transmission network for connecting distance users to a central network using public cables.

Water Absorption

Water by percent weight absorbed by a material after a given immersion period.

Watertight Cable

A cable specially constructed with no internal voids in order to allow no longitudinal water passage under a given pressure.

Watt

A unit of electrical power. One watt is equivalent to the power represented by one ampere of current under a pressure of one volt in DC circuit.

Waveguide dispersion

The dispersion that occurs with non-monochromatic light sources because the a/l relationship and, as a result, field distribution and group speeds of the modes in a light waveguide are wave dependent (a is the core radius, l is the light wavelength). In practice, waveguide dispersion always acts in conjunction with material dispersion; its overall effect is referred to as chromatic dispersion.

Wavelength

The distance, measured in the direction of propagation, of a repetitive electrical pulse or waveform between two successive points.

Wear resistance

The characteristic of a cable, wire or material to withstand surface wear.

WEEE directive

Under electrical and electronic equipment legislation (ElektroG in Germany), the WEEE directive governs the withdrawal of electrical and electronic products.

Wicking

The longitudinal flow of liquid in a wire or cable due to capillary action.

Wire drawing

Cold forming process, in which a sequence of increasingly small drawing dies (carbide cores or diamonds) gradually reduce the cross-section of pressed wire or wire rod.

Wire termination technique

Depending on the application, different wire termination methods can be chosen. Where ease of service and maintenance is required, a screw fitting is used. If large numbers of plug connectors with a reliable connection method are required, crimping is the best choice. A cage clamp combines ease of service with reliable wire termination, although the space required per contact for the wire termination is the highest of all the methods described here.

Wire–wrap connection

This is an electrical connection made without soldering. The contact is made by wrapping a bare copper wire around a square rod made of bronze, brass or silver under high tension (also known as cold welding).

Wiring cable

Cable for wiring equipment, control cabinets etc.

Wiring system

Wiring systems are made up of a variety of individual elements, such as cable sheathing, contact plugs, connector shells, seals, fixing elements, etc. In a car, the wiring system connects the electromechanical and electrical components and guarantees the transmission of information from and between the control units, as well as for the supply of energy to the consumers (engine, relay, lighting, etc.).

Working current, service current

The maximum permissible current that may be transmitted.

Woven cable

Several conductors running parallel which are held together using a thin sheath. See also → Flat cable.

XLPE

Abbreviation for cross-linked polyethylene.

Zinc

In the cable industry, galvanised steel tape or steel wire are used as the armouring material (→ Armouring) to protect against corrosion.

ZVEH

Abbreviation for Zentralverband der Deutschen Elektrohandwerke e.V. [Central Association of German Electrical Trades] (Germany).

ZVEI

Abbreviation for Zentralverband der Elektrotechnik- und Elektronik Industrie e.V. [Central Electrical Engineering and Electronics Industry Association] (Germany).