Standards, Directives & Guidelines
A: One of the main objectives of the 2006 revisions to the NFPA 79 standard (National Fire Protection Association) was to harmonize this standard with its European counterpart, IEC/EN 60204. The new version attaches great importance to cable and wire selection. This reflects the high levels of reliability and safety required of industrial equipment – such as machine tools or injection molding, woodworking and handling machines – as well as the frequently draconian impact of liability claims. The current 2007 edition of NFPA 79 expressly forbids the use of (UL-recognized) AWM cables in industrial machinery. As a result, approval is only granted to machines using cables with a so-called "UL listing" according to the American NEC (National Electrical Code). Red card for AWM cables Since the use of AWM cables in industrial machinery is strictly prohibited, machine and plant manufacturers have to adapt their development, planning and production processes accordingly. They need to make changes in development, planning and production because any machines that do not comply with the new NFPA 79 standard will not be certified for use. The consequences are significant because non-approval of a machine or plant usually results in high retrofit costs and even contractual penalties. There may also be a loss of customer trust and the company's reputation could be damaged. Caution with exceptions The new regulations contain exceptions, which permit the continued use of specific AWM cables, such as ÖLFLEX® 150 QUATTRO or ÖLFLEX® 191. However, these are discretionary exceptions that, in some cases, require a decision on an individual case basis by the machine certifying authority resp. National Recognized Testing Laboratory (NRTL) or the Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ). AWM cables may be accepted if they: • form part of a listed sensor/actuator box equipped with a connector and feed line • are separately inspected and approved by NRTLs • are routed in fully enclosed and UL-listed cable ducts or protective tubes The prerequisite for acceptance is a decision on the individual case by the NRTLs and AHJ. This not only causes a large amount of uncertainty until the point of approval, but also results in a significant loss of time and money if the exception is not granted. Green light for UL-listed products Safety first! To remain on the safe side from the outset and avoid any problems with US exports, UL-listed products should be used wherever possible. The 2007 edition of the NFPA 79 standard is not yet compulsory in all parts of the USA. However, this temporary period of limited validity will most likely end in 2010. Whether or not a cable is UL-listed (NFPA 79 compliant) or merely UL AWM recognized is indicated by the cable imprint or the certification mark on the relevant catalogue page.
A: There are no separate UL certificates for ÖLFLEX® and UNITRONIC® cables detailing, for example, the product name and a description, as in the case of GL (Germanischer Lloyd) certificates for instance. Whether or not a cable is legitimately UL-certified is indicated by the normative element of the cable imprint. It must contain all UL AWM styles or UL listings for which the cable has been tested and certified. The UL file number (e.g. E63634 for U.I. Lapp), a code for the manufacturer or certificate owner, is usually found at the end of the cable imprint. A public UL database is available on the Internet at www.ul.com. By selecting "Certifications" and entering the file number in the relevant field, anybody can check whether the relevant cable manufacturer is certified by the UL authority and thus authorized to print an UL AWM style or UL listing on their products. This website can be used to search by file number or company name. Some 1000 available UL AWM styles (Appliance Wiring Material) are listed under the U.I. Lapp file number E63634 alone. UL-recognized and UL-listed cables are subject to very strict production controls. Manufacturers cannot simply produce cables with incorrect UL imprints and without the correct authorization or bring such products to market. The productions plants are periodically audited by UL inspectors, who check the accuracy of the imprint on UL-certified cables and take production samples for subsequent examination in the UL laboratory. With the UL labeling system, each drum of UL-certified cable is registered using special, sequentially numbered UL label stickers. These measures ensure that manufacturers only produce UL-imprinted cables for which they have UL authorization and have paid the necessary certification fees. If a customer requires a UL "certificate" for a specific ÖLFLEX® or UNITRONIC® cable, he can visit the aforementioned website and use the relevant file number to check the validity of the UL AWM styles or UL listings printed on the core insulation or cable outer sheath.
A:The CE mark refers to the European Parliament's Low Voltage Directive 2006/95/EC and applies to cables and wires designed specifically for voltages between 50 and 1000 V (alternating current) or 75 and 1500 V (direct current) – i.e. voltage classes U0/U 100/100 V, 300/500 V, 450/750 V and 600/1000 V). Cables for network, data, signal, audio, i.e. electronic applications (not for power) < 50 V as well as connecting cables exceeding 1000 V (e.g. voltage class Uo/U 1.8/3 kV or 3.6/6 kV) are not subject to the Low Voltage Directive 2006/95/EC and therefore do not feature the CE mark on the outer sheath or packaging label.
A: The CCC certificate (China Compulsory Certificate "3C") was introduced in 2002 on the basis of legal directives and regulations of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and applies to both imported and Chinese-made products. Products requiring certification can only be imported into China, sold in China or used in Chinese business activities after the relevant CCC certification has been requested and granted. As to whether CCC certification is required for a specific product or product group, this depends on whether the relevant product is assigned to one of the product groups which the PRC has deemed subject to certification.
When imported to China as individual components – that is, provided separately rather than as part of a machine or system – Lapp cables and wires are subject to CCC certification, provided they are not part of an exception or exemption. Harmonized cables also require CCC identification. According to the labeling regulations, the manufacturer must be identifiable. Harmonized ÖLFLEX® cables with CCC identification are produced in separate plants.
Products of the Lapp catalogue for final use in China which may not be exported due to missing CCC certification:
• H05V-K, H07V-K, H05RR-F, H05RN-F, H07RN-F, H07RN8-F, H07ZZ-F, H01N2-D
• ÖLFLEX® 140 / 140 CY, 150 / 150 CY QUATTRO
• ÖLFLEX® 550 P (H05BQ-F, H07BQ-F)
• Miscellaneous <HAR> certified cables or single cores
Other cables that do not meet any IEC/HAR standard are still subject to the exemption regulation. These products are registered with the Chinese customs authorities and are identified on the basis of a self-declaration issued by the importer in conjunction with the catalogue and data sheet. The CCC exemption applications provided on the Intranet can be used to facilitate the import process. These applications do not act as certificates, but merely declare that the specified cable products are subject to CCC regulations. Applications must contain the following:
• The English-language catalogue page with the description and product image
• A declaration form for the relevant Chinese import authority (Shanghai) "Inspection & Quarantine Bureau"
• The "previous exemption certificate" (if available) to support the content of the declaration form. This (previous) exemption certificate is no longer a general requirement of the procedure, but is still useful for verification purposes.
Whether a previous CCC declaration for a cable is available you can check here.
Further information about the import of cables and wires into China is available at the following link:
No, they control the construction and testing requirements of the cables insuring that all electrical, physical, and environmental parameters are in compliance.
National Electrical Code regulations cited by the authority having jurisdiction in the area generally the local electrical inspector.
Not necessarily. There are machines that use UL listed cordage incorrectly. For example, some listed cables are only intended for temporary applications. Other listed cables may not meet the minimum stranding requirements needed for NFPA 79 compliance.
Machine Tool Wire (MTW) approval requires that the cable be flexible and offer a high degree of mechanical durability. These characteristics allow it to perform under the challenging conditions surrounding industrial machines.
In the long run yes, due much in part to issues surrounding liability and safety. In short, no one will purchase a machine that does not comply that could possibly expose them to liability.
Yes, all compliant MTW cables minimally meet the requirements of the UL Oil Res I test. For applications requiring a more severe exposure, the more rigorous Oil Res II test is also a permitted option.
No, unless the cable has an Exposed Run approval such as TC-ER (according to UL 1277)